Determine all eigenvalues and their algebraic multiplicities of the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & a & 1 \\
a &1 &a \\
1 & a & 1
\end{bmatrix},\]
where $a$ is a real number.

Let $G$ be an abelian group with the identity element $1$. Let $a, b$ be elements of $G$ with order $m$ and $n$, respectively.
If $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime, then show that the order of the element $ab$ is $mn$.

Let $R$ be a commutative ring. Let $S$ be a subset of $R$ and let $I$ be an ideal of $I$.
We define the subset
\[(I:S):=\{ a \in R \mid aS\subset I\}.\]
Prove that $(I:S)$ is an ideal of $R$. This ideal is called the ideal quotient, or colon ideal.

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$. Prove that the principal ideal $(x)$ generated by the element $x$ in the polynomial ring $R[x]$ is a prime ideal if and only if $R$ is an integral domain.

Prove also that the ideal $(x)$ is a maximal ideal if and only if $R$ is a field.

Let $G$ be a group. Assume that $H$ and $K$ are both normal subgroups of $G$ and $H \cap K=1$. Then for any elements $h \in H$ and $k\in K$, show that $hk=kh$.

Find the value(s) of $h$ for which the following set of vectors
\[\left \{ \mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_2\begin{bmatrix}
h \\
1 \\
-h
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2h \\
3h+1
\end{bmatrix}\right\}\]
is linearly independent.

(Boston College, Linear Algebra Midterm Exam Sample Problem)

Prove that the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1.00001 & 1 \\
1.00001 &1 &1.00001 \\
1 & 1.00001 & 1
\end{bmatrix}\]
has one positive eigenvalue and one negative eigenvalue.

(University of California, Berkeley Qualifying Exam Problem)

Denote by $i$ the square root of $-1$.
Let
\[R=\Z[i]=\{a+ib \mid a, b \in \Z \}\]
be the ring of Gaussian integers.
We define the norm $N:\Z[i] \to \Z$ by sending $\alpha=a+ib$ to
\[N(\alpha)=\alpha \bar{\alpha}=a^2+b^2.\]

Here $\bar{\alpha}$ is the complex conjugate of $\alpha$.
Then show that an element $\alpha \in R$ is a unit if and only if the norm $N(\alpha)=\pm 1$.
Also, determine all the units of the ring $R=\Z[i]$ of Gaussian integers.

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix. Suppose that $\lambda_1, \lambda_2$ are distinct eigenvalues of the matrix $A$ and let $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2$ be eigenvectors corresponding to $\lambda_1, \lambda_2$, respectively.

Show that the vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2$ are linearly independent.