# Category: Group Theory

## Problem 226

Let $G$ be a finite group. Suppose that $p$ is a prime number that divides the order of $G$.
Let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $G$ and let $P$ be a $p$-Sylow subgroup of $G$.
Show that if $P$ is normal in $N$, then $P$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.

## Problem 225

Show that a group $G$ is cyclic if and only if there exists a surjective group homomorphism from the additive group $\Z$ of integers to the group $G$.

## Problem 221

Let $p$ be a prime number. Let
$G=\{z\in \C \mid z^{p^n}=1\}$ be the group of $p$-power roots of $1$ in $\C$.

Show that the map $\Psi:G\to G$ mapping $z$ to $z^p$ is a surjective homomorphism.
Also deduce from this that $G$ is isomorphic to a proper quotient of $G$ itself.

## Problem 219

Use Lagrange’s Theorem in the multiplicative group $(\Zmod{p})^{\times}$ to prove Fermat’s Little Theorem: if $p$ is a prime number then $a^p \equiv a \pmod p$ for all $a \in \Z$.

## Problem 212

Let $G$ be a group. Suppose that the order of nonidentity element of $G$ is $2$.
Then show that $G$ is an abelian group.

## Problem 209

Let $G$ be a group. We fix an element $x$ of $G$ and define a map
$\Psi_x: G\to G$ by mapping $g\in G$ to $xgx^{-1} \in G$.
Then show that
(a) the map $\Psi_x$ is a group homomorphism,

(b) the map $\Psi_x=\id$ if and only if $x\in Z(G)$, where $Z(G)$ is the center of the group $G$.

(c) the map $\Psi_y=\id$ for all $y\in G$ if and only if $G$ is an abelian group.

## Problem 208

Let $G, G’$ be groups and let $f:G \to G’$ be a group homomorphism.
Put $N=\ker(f)$. Then show that we have
$f^{-1}(f(H))=HN.$

## Problem 207

Let $G$ be a group. Define a map $f:G \to G$ by sending each element $g \in G$ to its inverse $g^{-1} \in G$.
Show that $G$ is an abelian group if and only if the map $f: G\to G$ is a group homomorphism.

## Problem 205

Let $G$ be an abelian group with the identity element $1$. Let $a, b$ be elements of $G$ with order $m$ and $n$, respectively.
If $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime, then show that the order of the element $ab$ is $mn$.

## Problem 196

Let $G$ be a group. Assume that $H$ and $K$ are both normal subgroups of $G$ and $H \cap K=1$. Then for any elements $h \in H$ and $k\in K$, show that $hk=kh$.

## Problem 195

Let $G$ be a group and let $A$ be an abelian subgroup of $G$ with $A \triangleleft G$.
(That is, $A$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.)

If $B$ is any subgroup of $G$, then show that
$A \cap B \triangleleft AB.$

## Problem 167

Let $G, G’$ be groups. Suppose that we have a surjective group homomorphism $f:G\to G’$.
Show that if $G$ is an abelian group, then so is $G’$.

## Problem 163

Let $\Z$ be the additive group of integers. Let $f: \Z \to \Z$ be a group homomorphism.
Then show that there exists an integer $a$ such that
$f(n)=an$ for any integer $n$.

## Problem 161

Let $f: H \to G$ be a surjective group homomorphism from a group $H$ to a group $G$.
Let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $H$. Show that the image $f(N)$ is normal in $G$.

## Problem 160

Let $G$ be a finite group and let $H$ be a subset of $G$ such that for any $a,b \in H$, $ab\in H$.

Then show that $H$ is a subgroup of $G$.

## Problem 149

Let $G$ be a non-abelian simple group. Let $D(G)=[G,G]$ be the commutator subgroup of $G$. Show that $G=D(G)$.

## Problem 148

Let $K, N$ be normal subgroups of a group $G$. Suppose that the quotient groups $G/K$ and $G/N$ are both abelian groups. Then show that the group
$G/(K \cap N)$ is also an abelian group.

## Problem 147

Let $G$ be a group and let $D(G)=[G,G]$ be the commutator subgroup of $G$.
Let $N$ be a subgroup of $G$.
Prove that the subgroup $N$ is normal in $G$ and $G/N$ is an abelian group if and only if $N \supset D(G)$.

## Problem 145

Let $G$ be a finite group of order $n$ and let $m$ be an integer that is relatively prime to $n=|G|$. Show that for any $a\in G$, there exists a unique element $b\in G$ such that
$b^m=a.$

Let $G$ and $H$ be groups and let $f:G \to K$ be a group homomorphism. Prove that the homomorphism $f$ is injective if and only if the kernel is trivial, that is, $\ker(f)=\{e\}$, where $e$ is the identity element of $G$.