Give a Formula for a Linear Transformation if the Values on Basis Vectors are Known

Problem 159

Let $T: \R^2 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation.
Let
\[
\mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}\] be 2-dimensional vectors.
Suppose that
\begin{align*}
T(\mathbf{u})&=T\left( \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \right)=\begin{bmatrix}
-3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix},\\
T(\mathbf{v})&=T\left(\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}\right)=\begin{bmatrix}
7 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}
Let $\mathbf{w}=\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y
\end{bmatrix}\in \R^2$.
Find the formula for $T(\mathbf{w})$ in terms of $x$ and $y$.

 

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Vector Space of Polynomials and Coordinate Vectors

Problem 157

Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree two or less.
Consider the subset in $P_2$
\[Q=\{ p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},\] where
\begin{align*}
&p_1(x)=x^2+2x+1, &p_2(x)=2x^2+3x+1, \\
&p_3(x)=2x^2, &p_4(x)=2x^2+x+1.
\end{align*}
(a) Use the basis $B=\{1, x, x^2\}$ of $P_2$, give the coordinate vectors of the vectors in $Q$.
(b) Find a basis of the span $\Span(Q)$ consisting of vectors in $Q$.
(c) For each vector in $Q$ which is not a basis vector you obtained in (b), express the vector as a linear combination of basis vectors.

 

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Give the Formula for a Linear Transformation from $\R^3$ to $\R^2$

Problem 156

Let $T: \R^3 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation such that
\[T(\mathbf{e}_1)=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
4
\end{bmatrix}, T(\mathbf{e}_2)=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}, T(\mathbf{e}_3)=\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
6
\end{bmatrix},\] where
\[\mathbf{e}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{e}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{e}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}\] are the standard unit basis vectors of $\R^3$.
For any vector $\mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2 \\
x_3
\end{bmatrix}\in \R^3$, find a formula for $T(\mathbf{x})$.

 

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Range, Null Space, Rank, and Nullity of a Linear Transformation from $\R^2$ to $\R^3$

Problem 154

Define the map $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ by $T \left ( \begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2
\end{bmatrix}\right )=\begin{bmatrix}
x_1-x_2 \\
x_1+x_2 \\
x_2
\end{bmatrix}$.

(a) Show that $T$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Find a matrix $A$ such that $T(\mathbf{x})=A\mathbf{x}$ for each $\mathbf{x} \in \R^2$.

(c) Describe the null space (kernel) and the range of $T$ and give the rank and the nullity of $T$.

 

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Show the Subset of the Vector Space of Polynomials is a Subspace and Find its Basis

Problem 153

Let $P_3$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all degree three or less polynomial with real number coefficient.
Let $W$ be the following subset of $P_3$.
\[W=\{p(x) \in P_3 \mid p'(-1)=0 \text{ and } p^{\prime\prime}(1)=0\}.\] Here $p'(x)$ is the first derivative of $p(x)$ and $p^{\prime\prime}(x)$ is the second derivative of $p(x)$.

Show that $W$ is a subspace of $P_3$ and find a basis for $W$.

 

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Find a Basis for a Subspace of the Vector Space of $2\times 2$ Matrices

Problem 152

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices, and let the subset $S$ of $V$ be defined by $S=\{A_1, A_2, A_3, A_4\}$, where
\begin{align*}
A_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2 \\
-1 & 3
\end{bmatrix}, \quad
A_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & -1 \\
1 & 4
\end{bmatrix}, \quad
A_3=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 & 0 \\
1 & -10
\end{bmatrix}, \quad
A_4=\begin{bmatrix}
3 & 7 \\
-2 & 6
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}
Find a basis of the span $\Span(S)$ consisting of vectors in $S$ and find the dimension of $\Span(S)$.

 

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Any Vector is a Linear Combination of Basis Vectors Uniquely

Problem 151

Let $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3\}$ be a basis for a vector space $V$ over a scalar field $K$. Then show that any vector $\mathbf{v}\in V$ can be written uniquely as
\[\mathbf{v}=c_1\mathbf{v}_1+c_2\mathbf{v}_2+c_3\mathbf{v}_3,\] where $c_1, c_2, c_3$ are scalars.
 

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Subspaces of Symmetric, Skew-Symmetric Matrices

Problem 143

Let $V$ be the vector space over $\R$ consisting of all $n\times n$ real matrices for some fixed integer $n$. Prove or disprove that the following subsets of $V$ are subspaces of $V$.

(a) The set $S$ consisting of all $n\times n$ symmetric matrices.

(b) The set $T$ consisting of all $n \times n$ skew-symmetric matrices.

(c) The set $U$ consisting of all $n\times n$ nonsingular matrices.

 

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Find a Value of a Linear Transformation From $\R^2$ to $\R^3$

Problem 142

Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation such that $T(\mathbf{e}_1)=\mathbf{u}_1$ and $T(\mathbf{e}_2)=\mathbf{u}_2$, where $\mathbf{e}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{e}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}$ are unit vectors of $\R^2$ and
\[\mathbf{u}_1= \begin{bmatrix}
-1 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \quad \mathbf{u}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}.\] Then find $T\left(\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
-2
\end{bmatrix}\right)$.

 

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Linear Independent Vectors and the Vector Space Spanned By Them

Problem 141

Let $V$ be a vector space over a field $K$. Let $\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2, \dots, \mathbf{u}_n$ be linearly independent vectors in $V$. Let $U$ be the subspace of $V$ spanned by these vectors, that is, $U=\Span \{\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2, \dots, \mathbf{u}_n\}$.
Let $\mathbf{u}_{n+1}\in V$. Show that $\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2, \dots, \mathbf{u}_n, \mathbf{u}_{n+1}$ are linearly independent if and only if $\mathbf{u}_{n+1} \not \in U$.

 

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