A field $F$ is said to be algebraically closed if each non-constant polynomial in $F[x]$ has a root in $F$.

Proof.

Let $F$ be a finite field and consider the polynomial
\[f(x)=1+\prod_{a\in F}(x-a).\]
The coefficients of $f(x)$ lie in the field $F$, and thus $f(x)\in F[x]$. Of course, $f(x)$ is a non-constant polynomial.

Note that for each $a \in F$, we have
\[f(a)=1\neq 0.\]
So the polynomial $f(x)$ has no root in $F$.
Hence the finite field $F$ is not algebraic closed.

It follows that every algebraically closed field must be infinite.

Polynomial $x^p-x+a$ is Irreducible and Separable Over a Finite Field
Let $p\in \Z$ be a prime number and let $\F_p$ be the field of $p$ elements.
For any nonzero element $a\in \F_p$, prove that the polynomial
\[f(x)=x^p-x+a\]
is irreducible and separable over $F_p$.
(Dummit and Foote "Abstract Algebra" Section 13.5 Exercise #5 on […]

Prove that $\F_3[x]/(x^2+1)$ is a Field and Find the Inverse Elements
Let $\F_3=\Zmod{3}$ be the finite field of order $3$.
Consider the ring $\F_3[x]$ of polynomial over $\F_3$ and its ideal $I=(x^2+1)$ generated by $x^2+1\in \F_3[x]$.
(a) Prove that the quotient ring $\F_3[x]/(x^2+1)$ is a field. How many elements does the field have?
(b) […]

Explicit Field Isomorphism of Finite Fields
(a) Let $f_1(x)$ and $f_2(x)$ be irreducible polynomials over a finite field $\F_p$, where $p$ is a prime number. Suppose that $f_1(x)$ and $f_2(x)$ have the same degrees. Then show that fields $\F_p[x]/(f_1(x))$ and $\F_p[x]/(f_2(x))$ are isomorphic.
(b) Show that the polynomials […]

Each Element in a Finite Field is the Sum of Two Squares
Let $F$ be a finite field.
Prove that each element in the field $F$ is the sum of two squares in $F$.
Proof.
Let $x$ be an element in $F$. We want to show that there exists $a, b\in F$ such that
\[x=a^2+b^2.\]
Since $F$ is a finite field, the characteristic $p$ of the field […]

Application of Field Extension to Linear Combination
Consider the cubic polynomial $f(x)=x^3-x+1$ in $\Q[x]$.
Let $\alpha$ be any real root of $f(x)$.
Then prove that $\sqrt{2}$ can not be written as a linear combination of $1, \alpha, \alpha^2$ with coefficients in $\Q$.
Proof.
We first prove that the polynomial […]

Irreducible Polynomial $x^3+9x+6$ and Inverse Element in Field Extension
Prove that the polynomial
\[f(x)=x^3+9x+6\]
is irreducible over the field of rational numbers $\Q$.
Let $\theta$ be a root of $f(x)$.
Then find the inverse of $1+\theta$ in the field $\Q(\theta)$.
Proof.
Note that $f(x)$ is a monic polynomial and the prime […]

Galois Group of the Polynomial $x^2-2$
Let $\Q$ be the field of rational numbers.
(a) Is the polynomial $f(x)=x^2-2$ separable over $\Q$?
(b) Find the Galois group of $f(x)$ over $\Q$.
Solution.
(a) The polynomial $f(x)=x^2-2$ is separable over $\Q$
The roots of the polynomial $f(x)$ are $\pm […]

Degree of an Irreducible Factor of a Composition of Polynomials
Let $f(x)$ be an irreducible polynomial of degree $n$ over a field $F$. Let $g(x)$ be any polynomial in $F[x]$.
Show that the degree of each irreducible factor of the composite polynomial $f(g(x))$ is divisible by $n$.
Hint.
Use the following fact.
Let $h(x)$ is an […]