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  • Example of an Infinite Group Whose Elements Have Finite OrdersExample of an Infinite Group Whose Elements Have Finite Orders Is it possible that each element of an infinite group has a finite order? If so, give an example. Otherwise, prove the non-existence of such a group.   Solution. We give an example of a group of infinite order each of whose elements has a finite order. Consider […]
  • If a Matrix is the Product of Two Matrices, is it Invertible?If a Matrix is the Product of Two Matrices, is it Invertible? (a) Let $A$ be a $6\times 6$ matrix and suppose that $A$ can be written as \[A=BC,\] where $B$ is a $6\times 5$ matrix and $C$ is a $5\times 6$ matrix. Prove that the matrix $A$ cannot be invertible. (b) Let $A$ be a $2\times 2$ matrix and suppose that $A$ can be […]
  • $\sqrt[m]{2}$ is an Irrational Number$\sqrt[m]{2}$ is an Irrational Number Prove that $\sqrt[m]{2}$ is an irrational number for any integer $m \geq 2$.   Hint. Use ring theory: Consider the polynomial $f(x)=x^m-2$. Apply Eisenstein's criterion, show that $f(x)$ is irreducible over $\Q$. Proof. Consider the monic polynomial […]
  • Basic Exercise Problems in Module TheoryBasic Exercise Problems in Module Theory Let $R$ be a ring with $1$ and $M$ be a left $R$-module. (a) Prove that $0_Rm=0_M$ for all $m \in M$. Here $0_R$ is the zero element in the ring $R$ and $0_M$ is the zero element in the module $M$, that is, the identity element of the additive group $M$. To simplify the […]
  • Every Finitely Generated Subgroup of Additive Group $\Q$ of Rational Numbers is CyclicEvery Finitely Generated Subgroup of Additive Group $\Q$ of Rational Numbers is Cyclic Let $\Q=(\Q, +)$ be the additive group of rational numbers. (a) Prove that every finitely generated subgroup of $(\Q, +)$ is cyclic. (b) Prove that $\Q$ and $\Q \times \Q$ are not isomorphic as groups.   Proof. (a) Prove that every finitely generated […]
  • Linear Dependent/Independent Vectors of PolynomialsLinear Dependent/Independent Vectors of Polynomials Let $p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)$ be (real) polynomials of degree at most $3$. Which (if any) of the following two conditions is sufficient for the conclusion that these polynomials are linearly dependent? (a) At $1$ each of the polynomials has the value $0$. Namely $p_i(1)=0$ […]
  • Linear Transformation $T:\R^2 \to \R^2$ Given in FigureLinear Transformation $T:\R^2 \to \R^2$ Given in Figure Let $T:\R^2\to \R^2$ be a linear transformation such that it maps the vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2$ as indicated in the figure below. Find the matrix representation $A$ of the linear transformation $T$.   Solution 1. From the figure, we see […]
  • Vector Space of Polynomials and a Basis of  Its SubspaceVector Space of Polynomials and a Basis of Its Subspace Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree two or less. Consider the subset in $P_2$ \[Q=\{ p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},\] where \begin{align*} &p_1(x)=1, &p_2(x)=x^2+x+1, \\ &p_3(x)=2x^2, &p_4(x)=x^2-x+1. \end{align*} (a) Use the basis $B=\{1, x, […]

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