Tagged: characteristic polynomial

Rotation Matrix in the Plane and its Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Problem 550

Consider the $2\times 2$ matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
\cos \theta & -\sin \theta\\
\sin \theta& \cos \theta \end{bmatrix},\] where $\theta$ is a real number $0\leq \theta < 2\pi$.

 

(a) Find the characteristic polynomial of the matrix $A$.

(b) Find the eigenvalues of the matrix $A$.

(c) Determine the eigenvectors corresponding to each of the eigenvalues of $A$.


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Diagonalize the Complex Symmetric 3 by 3 Matrix with $\sin x$ and $\cos x$

Problem 533

Consider the complex matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
\sqrt{2}\cos x & i \sin x & 0 \\
i \sin x &0 &-i \sin x \\
0 & -i \sin x & -\sqrt{2} \cos x
\end{bmatrix},\] where $x$ is a real number between $0$ and $2\pi$.

Determine for which values of $x$ the matrix $A$ is diagonalizable.
When $A$ is diagonalizable, find a diagonal matrix $D$ so that $P^{-1}AP=D$ for some nonsingular matrix $P$.

 

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Use the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem to Compute the Power $A^{100}$

Problem 471

Let $A$ be a $3\times 3$ real orthogonal matrix with $\det(A)=1$.

(a) If $\frac{-1+\sqrt{3}i}{2}$ is one of the eigenvalues of $A$, then find the all the eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) Let
\[A^{100}=aA^2+bA+cI,\] where $I$ is the $3\times 3$ identity matrix.
Using the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, determine $a, b, c$.

(Kyushu University, Linear Algebra Exam Problem)
 

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Diagonalize a 2 by 2 Matrix $A$ and Calculate the Power $A^{100}$

Problem 466

Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2\\
4& 3
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Find eigenvalues of the matrix $A$.

(b) Find eigenvectors for each eigenvalue of $A$.

(c) Diagonalize the matrix $A$. That is, find an invertible matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.

(d) Diagonalize the matrix $A^3-5A^2+3A+I$, where $I$ is the $2\times 2$ identity matrix.

(e) Calculate $A^{100}$. (You do not have to compute $5^{100}$.)

(f) Calculate
\[(A^3-5A^2+3A+I)^{100}.\] Let $w=2^{100}$. Express the solution in terms of $w$.

 

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True of False Problems on Determinants and Invertible Matrices

Problem 438

Determine whether each of the following statements is True or False.

(a) If $A$ and $B$ are $n \times n$ matrices, and $P$ is an invertible $n \times n$ matrix such that $A=PBP^{-1}$, then $\det(A)=\det(B)$.

(b) If the characteristic polynomial of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ is
\[p(\lambda)=(\lambda-1)^n+2,\] then $A$ is invertible.

(c) If $A^2$ is an invertible $n\times n$ matrix, then $A^3$ is also invertible.

(d) If $A$ is a $3\times 3$ matrix such that $\det(A)=7$, then $\det(2A^{\trans}A^{-1})=2$.

(e) If $\mathbf{v}$ is an eigenvector of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ with corresponding eigenvalue $\lambda_1$, and if $\mathbf{w}$ is an eigenvector of $A$ with corresponding eigenvalue $\lambda_2$, then $\mathbf{v}+\mathbf{w}$ is an eigenvector of $A$ with corresponding eigenvalue $\lambda_1+\lambda_2$.

(Stanford University, Linear Algebra Exam Problem)
 

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Eigenvalues of Orthogonal Matrices Have Length 1. Every $3\times 3$ Orthogonal Matrix Has 1 as an Eigenvalue

Problem 419

(a) Let $A$ be a real orthogonal $n\times n$ matrix. Prove that the length (magnitude) of each eigenvalue of $A$ is $1$


(b) Let $A$ be a real orthogonal $3\times 3$ matrix and suppose that the determinant of $A$ is $1$. Then prove that $A$ has $1$ as an eigenvalue.

 

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Determine Whether Given Matrices are Similar

Problem 391

(a) Is the matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2\\
0& 3
\end{bmatrix}$ similar to the matrix $B=\begin{bmatrix}
3 & 0\\
1& 2
\end{bmatrix}$?  

(b) Is the matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 1\\
5& 3
\end{bmatrix}$ similar to the matrix $B=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2\\
4& 3
\end{bmatrix}$? 

(c) Is the matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 & 6\\
-2& 6
\end{bmatrix}$ similar to the matrix $B=\begin{bmatrix}
3 & 0\\
0& 2
\end{bmatrix}$? 

(d) Is the matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 & 6\\
-2& 6
\end{bmatrix}$ similar to the matrix $B=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2\\
-1& 4
\end{bmatrix}$?

 

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Determine Dimensions of Eigenspaces From Characteristic Polynomial of Diagonalizable Matrix

Problem 384

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix with the characteristic polynomial
\[p(t)=t^3(t-1)^2(t-2)^5(t+2)^4.\] Assume that the matrix $A$ is diagonalizable.

(a) Find the size of the matrix $A$.

(b) Find the dimension of the eigenspace $E_2$ corresponding to the eigenvalue $\lambda=2$.

(c) Find the nullity of $A$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra final exam problem)
 

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