# Tagged: Gauss-Jordan elimination

## Problem 651

(a) Find a function
$g(\theta) = a \cos(\theta) + b \cos(2 \theta) + c \cos(3 \theta)$ such that $g(0) = g(\pi/2) = g(\pi) = 0$, where $a, b, c$ are constants.

(b) Find real numbers $a, b, c$ such that the function
$g(\theta) = a \cos(\theta) + b \cos(2 \theta) + c \cos(3 \theta)$ satisfies $g(0) = 3$, $g(\pi/2) = 1$, and $g(\pi) = -5$.

## Problem 298

Let
$\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 5 \\ -1 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 4 \\ 3 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_3=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 13 \\ 6 \end{bmatrix}.$ Express the vector $\mathbf{b}$ as a linear combination of the vector $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm Exam Problem)

## Problem 296

Solve the following system of linear equations and give the vector form for the general solution.
\begin{align*}
x_1 -x_3 -2x_5&=1 \\
x_2+3x_3-x_5 &=2 \\
2x_1 -2x_3 +x_4 -3x_5 &= 0
\end{align*}

(The Ohio State University, linear algebra midterm exam problem)

## Problem 280

Determine whether there exists a nonsingular matrix $A$ if
$A^2=AB+2A,$ where $B$ is the following matrix.
If such a nonsingular matrix $A$ exists, find the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$.

(a) $B=\begin{bmatrix} -1 & 1 & -1 \\ 0 &-1 &0 \\ 1 & 2 & -2 \end{bmatrix}$

(b) $B=\begin{bmatrix} -1 & 1 & -1 \\ 0 &-1 &0 \\ 2 & 1 & -4 \end{bmatrix}.$

## Problem 277

Determine whether the following set of vectors is linearly independent or linearly dependent. If the set is linearly dependent, express one vector in the set as a linear combination of the others.
$\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ -1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 3 \\ 4 \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} -1 \\ -2 \\ 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} -2 \\ -2 \\ 7 \\ 11 \end{bmatrix}\, \right\}.$

## Problem 272

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 3\\ 2& 4 \end{bmatrix}.$ Then

(a) Find all matrices
$B=\begin{bmatrix} x & y\\ z& w \end{bmatrix}$ such that $AB=BA$.

(b) Use the results of part (a) to exhibit $2\times 2$ matrices $B$ and $C$ such that
$AB=BA \text{ and } AC \neq CA.$

## Problem 267

Solve the following system of linear equations by transforming its augmented matrix to reduced echelon form (Gauss-Jordan elimination).

Find the vector form for the general solution.
\begin{align*}
x_1-x_3-3x_5&=1\\
3x_1+x_2-x_3+x_4-9x_5&=3\\
x_1-x_3+x_4-2x_5&=1.
\end{align*}

## Problem 262

(a) Solve the following system by transforming the augmented matrix to reduced echelon form (Gauss-Jordan elimination). Indicate the elementary row operations you performed.
\begin{align*}
x_1+x_2-x_5&=1\\
x_2+2x_3+x_4+3x_5&=1\\
x_1-x_3+x_4+x_5&=0
\end{align*}

(b) Determine all possibilities for the solution set of a homogeneous system of $2$ equations in $2$ unknowns that has a solution $x_1=1, x_2=5$.

## Problem 242

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 &3 &2 \\ -1 & -3 & -4 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } B=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 &3 &2 \\ 5 & 3 & 3 \end{bmatrix}.$

Determine the null spaces of matrices $A$ and $B$.

## Problem 189

Let $C$ be a $4 \times 4$ matrix with all eigenvalues $\lambda=2, -1$ and eigensapces
$E_2=\Span\left \{\quad \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} \quad\right \} \text{ and } E_{-1}=\Span\left \{ \quad\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix},\quad \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix} \quad\right\}.$

Calculate $C^4 \mathbf{u}$ for $\mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix} 6 \\ 8 \\ 6 \\ 9 \end{bmatrix}$ if possible. Explain why if it is not possible!

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)

## Problem 164

Let $T:\R^4 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation defined by
$T\left (\, \begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ x_3 \\ x_4 \end{bmatrix} \,\right) = \begin{bmatrix} x_1+2x_2+3x_3-x_4 \\ 3x_1+5x_2+8x_3-2x_4 \\ x_1+x_2+2x_3 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Find a matrix $A$ such that $T(\mathbf{x})=A\mathbf{x}$.

(b) Find a basis for the null space of $T$.

(c) Find the rank of the linear transformation $T$.

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)

## Problem 159

Let $T: \R^2 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation.
Let
$\mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix} 3 \\ 5 \end{bmatrix}$ be 2-dimensional vectors.
Suppose that
\begin{align*}
T(\mathbf{u})&=T\left( \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \right)=\begin{bmatrix}
-3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix},\\
T(\mathbf{v})&=T\left(\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}\right)=\begin{bmatrix}
7 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}
Let $\mathbf{w}=\begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \end{bmatrix}\in \R^2$.
Find the formula for $T(\mathbf{w})$ in terms of $x$ and $y$.

## Problem 157

Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree two or less.
Consider the subset in $P_2$
$Q=\{ p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},$ where
\begin{align*}
&p_1(x)=x^2+2x+1, &p_2(x)=2x^2+3x+1, \\
&p_3(x)=2x^2, &p_4(x)=2x^2+x+1.
\end{align*}

(a) Use the basis $B=\{1, x, x^2\}$ of $P_2$, give the coordinate vectors of the vectors in $Q$.

(b) Find a basis of the span $\Span(Q)$ consisting of vectors in $Q$.

(c) For each vector in $Q$ which is not a basis vector you obtained in (b), express the vector as a linear combination of basis vectors.

## Problem 154

Define the map $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ by $T \left ( \begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \end{bmatrix}\right )=\begin{bmatrix} x_1-x_2 \\ x_1+x_2 \\ x_2 \end{bmatrix}$.

(a) Show that $T$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Find a matrix $A$ such that $T(\mathbf{x})=A\mathbf{x}$ for each $\mathbf{x} \in \R^2$.

(c) Describe the null space (kernel) and the range of $T$ and give the rank and the nullity of $T$.

## Problem 132

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 0 \\ 1 &1 &0 \end{bmatrix}$ be a matrix.

Find a basis of the null space of the matrix $A$.

(Remark: a null space is also called a kernel.)

## Problem 115

Express the vector $\mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 13 \\ 6 \end{bmatrix}$ as a linear combination of the vectors
$\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 5 \\ -1 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_2= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_3= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 4 \\ 3 \end{bmatrix}.$

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 87

Find a cubic polynomial
$p(x)=a+bx+cx^2+dx^3$ such that $p(1)=1, p'(1)=5, p(-1)=3$, and $p'(-1)=1$.

## Problem 44

Suppose that a real matrix $A$ maps each of the following vectors
$\mathbf{x}_1=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{x}_2=\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{x}_3=\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}$ into the vectors
$\mathbf{y}_1=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{y}_2=\begin{bmatrix} -1 \\ 0 \\ 3 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{y}_3=\begin{bmatrix} 3 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix},$ respectively.
That is, $A\mathbf{x}_i=\mathbf{y}_i$ for $i=1,2,3$.
Find the matrix $A$.

(Kyoto University Exam)

## Problem 27

Solve the following system of linear equations using Gauss-Jordan elimination.
\begin{align*}
6x+8y+6z+3w &=-3 \\
6x-8y+6z-3w &=3\\
8y \,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,- 6w &=6
\end{align*}

## Problem 24

Solve the following system of linear equations using Gaussian elimination.
\begin{align*}
x+2y+3z &=4 \\
5x+6y+7z &=8\\
9x+10y+11z &=12
\end{align*}