# Tagged: kernel

## Problem 613

Let $m$ and $n$ be positive integers such that $m \mid n$.

(a) Prove that the map $\phi:\Zmod{n} \to \Zmod{m}$ sending $a+n\Z$ to $a+m\Z$ for any $a\in \Z$ is well-defined.

(b) Prove that $\phi$ is a group homomorphism.

(c) Prove that $\phi$ is surjective.

(d) Determine the group structure of the kernel of $\phi$.

## Problem 528

Let $V$ denote the vector space of all real $2\times 2$ matrices.
Suppose that the linear transformation from $V$ to $V$ is given as below.
$T(A)=\begin{bmatrix} 2 & 3\\ 5 & 7 \end{bmatrix}A-A\begin{bmatrix} 2 & 3\\ 5 & 7 \end{bmatrix}.$ Prove or disprove that the linear transformation $T:V\to V$ is an isomorphism.

## Problem 525

Let
$R=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix} a & b\\ 0& a \end{bmatrix} \quad \middle | \quad a, b\in \Q \,\right\}.$ Then the usual matrix addition and multiplication make $R$ an ring.

Let
$J=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix} 0 & b\\ 0& 0 \end{bmatrix} \quad \middle | \quad b \in \Q \,\right\}$ be a subset of the ring $R$.

(a) Prove that the subset $J$ is an ideal of the ring $R$.

(b) Prove that the quotient ring $R/J$ is isomorphic to $\Q$.

## Problem 517

Let $R$ be a commutative ring. Consider the polynomial ring $R[x,y]$ in two variables $x, y$.
Let $(x)$ be the principal ideal of $R[x,y]$ generated by $x$.

Prove that $R[x, y]/(x)$ is isomorphic to $R[y]$ as a ring.

## Problem 490

Let $G, H, K$ be groups. Let $f:G\to K$ be a group homomorphism and let $\pi:G\to H$ be a surjective group homomorphism such that the kernel of $\pi$ is included in the kernel of $f$: $\ker(\pi) \subset \ker(f)$.

Define a map $\tilde{f}:H\to K$ as follows.
For each $h\in H$, there exists $g\in G$ such that $\pi(g)=h$ since $\pi:G\to H$ is surjective.
Define $\tilde{f}:H\to K$ by $\tilde{f}(h)=f(g)$.

(a) Prove that the map $\tilde{f}:H\to K$ is well-defined.

(b) Prove that $\tilde{f}:H\to K$ is a group homomorphism.

## Problem 436

Let $R$ be a ring with $1$. Prove that the following three statements are equivalent.

1. The ring $R$ is a field.
2. The only ideals of $R$ are $(0)$ and $R$.
3. Let $S$ be any ring with $1$. Then any ring homomorphism $f:R \to S$ is injective.

## Problem 435

Let $\calF[0, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all real valued functions defined on the interval $[0, 2\pi]$.
Define the map $f:\R^2 \to \calF[0, 2\pi]$ by
$\left(\, f\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} \alpha \\ \beta \end{bmatrix} \,\right) \,\right)(x):=\alpha \cos x + \beta \sin x.$ We put
$V:=\im f=\{\alpha \cos x + \beta \sin x \in \calF[0, 2\pi] \mid \alpha, \beta \in \R\}.$

(a) Prove that the map $f$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Prove that the set $\{\cos x, \sin x\}$ is a basis of the vector space $V$.

(c) Prove that the kernel is trivial, that is, $\ker f=\{\mathbf{0}\}$.
(This yields an isomorphism of $\R^2$ and $V$.)

(d) Define a map $g:V \to V$ by
$g(\alpha \cos x + \beta \sin x):=\frac{d}{dx}(\alpha \cos x+ \beta \sin x)=\beta \cos x -\alpha \sin x.$ Prove that the map $g$ is a linear transformation.

(e) Find the matrix representation of the linear transformation $g$ with respect to the basis $\{\cos x, \sin x\}$.

(Kyoto University, Linear Algebra exam problem)

## Problem 429

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ idempotent matrix, that is, $A^2=A$. Then prove that $A$ is diagonalizable.

## Problem 395

Suppose that the vectors
$\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix} -2 \\ 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \qquad \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix} -4 \\ 0 \\ -3 \\ -2 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}$ are a basis vectors for the null space of a $4\times 5$ matrix $A$. Find a vector $\mathbf{x}$ such that
$\mathbf{x}\neq0, \quad \mathbf{x}\neq \mathbf{v}_1, \quad \mathbf{x}\neq \mathbf{v}_2,$ and
$A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}.$

(Stanford University, Linear Algebra Exam Problem)

## Problem 392

Let $V$ be the subspace of $\R^4$ defined by the equation
$x_1-x_2+2x_3+6x_4=0.$ Find a linear transformation $T$ from $\R^3$ to $\R^4$ such that the null space $\calN(T)=\{\mathbf{0}\}$ and the range $\calR(T)=V$. Describe $T$ by its matrix $A$.

## Problem 352

A hyperplane in $n$-dimensional vector space $\R^n$ is defined to be the set of vectors
$\begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_n \end{bmatrix}\in \R^n$ satisfying the linear equation of the form
$a_1x_1+a_2x_2+\cdots+a_nx_n=b,$ where $a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n$ (at least one of $a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n$ is nonzero) and $b$ are real numbers.
Here at least one of $a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n$ is nonzero.

Consider the hyperplane $P$ in $\R^n$ described by the linear equation
$a_1x_1+a_2x_2+\cdots+a_nx_n=0,$ where $a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n$ are some fixed real numbers and not all of these are zero.
(The constant term $b$ is zero.)

Then prove that the hyperplane $P$ is a subspace of $R^{n}$ of dimension $n-1$.

## Problem 345

Let $R$ be the ring of all continuous functions on the interval $[0, 2]$.
Let $I$ be the subset of $R$ defined by
$I:=\{ f(x) \in R \mid f(1)=0\}.$

Then prove that $I$ is an ideal of the ring $R$.
Moreover, show that $I$ is maximal and determine $R/I$.

## Problem 342

Let $G$ be an abelian group and let $f: G\to \Z$ be a surjective group homomorphism.

Prove that we have an isomorphism of groups:
$G \cong \ker(f)\times \Z.$

## Problem 329

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Let $T:\R^n \to \R$ be a non-zero linear transformation.
Prove the followings.

(a) The nullity of $T$ is $n-1$. That is, the dimension of the nullspace of $T$ is $n-1$.

(b) Let $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \cdots, \mathbf{v}_{n-1}\}$ be a basis of the nullspace $\calN(T)$ of $T$.
Let $\mathbf{w}$ be the $n$-dimensional vector that is not in $\calN(T)$. Then
$B’=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \cdots, \mathbf{v}_{n-1}, \mathbf{w}\}$ is a basis of $\R^n$.

(c) Each vector $\mathbf{u}\in \R^n$ can be expressed as
$\mathbf{u}=\mathbf{v}+\frac{T(\mathbf{u})}{T(\mathbf{w})}\mathbf{w}$ for some vector $\mathbf{v}\in \calN(T)$.

## Problem 327

Let $A$ be the matrix for a linear transformation $T:\R^n \to \R^n$ with respect to the standard basis of $\R^n$.
We assume that $A$ is idempotent, that is, $A^2=A$.
Then prove that
$\R^n=\im(T) \oplus \ker(T).$

## Problem 313

(a) Let $A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 1 \\ 3 &6 &4 \end{bmatrix}$ and let
$\mathbf{a}=\begin{bmatrix} -3 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \qquad \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix} -2 \\ 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \qquad \mathbf{c}=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}.$ For each of the vectors $\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{b}, \mathbf{c}$, determine whether the vector is in the null space $\calN(A)$. Do the same for the range $\calR(A)$.

(b) Find a basis of the null space of the matrix $B=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 2 \\ -2 &-2 &-4 \end{bmatrix}$.

## Problem 311

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices. Then prove that
$\calN(A)\cap \calN(B) \subset \calN(A+B),$ where $\calN(A)$ is the null space (kernel) of the matrix $A$.

## Problem 303

Let $A$ be a real $7\times 3$ matrix such that its null space is spanned by the vectors
$\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \text{ and } \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ -1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}.$ Then find the rank of the matrix $A$.

(Purdue University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

## Problem 302

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$ and let $G$ be a finite group with identity element $e$. Let $RG$ be the group ring. Then the map $\epsilon: RG \to R$ defined by
$\epsilon(\sum_{i=1}^na_i g_i)=\sum_{i=1}^na_i,$ where $a_i\in R$ and $G=\{g_i\}_{i=1}^n$, is a ring homomorphism, called the augmentation map and the kernel of $\epsilon$ is called the augmentation ideal.

(a) Prove that the augmentation ideal in the group ring $RG$ is generated by $\{g-e \mid g\in G\}$.

(b) Prove that if $G=\langle g\rangle$ is a finite cyclic group generated by $g$, then the augmentation ideal is generated by $g-e$.

Prove that every plane in the $3$-dimensional space $\R^3$ that passes through the origin is a subspace of $\R^3$.