Prove that the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 1\\
-1& 0
\end{bmatrix}\]
is diagonalizable.
Prove, however, that $A$ cannot be diagonalized by a real nonsingular matrix.
That is, there is no real nonsingular matrix $S$ such that $S^{-1}AS$ is a diagonal matrix.

The following problems are Midterm 1 problems of Linear Algebra (Math 2568) at the Ohio State University in Autumn 2017.
There were 9 problems that covered Chapter 1 of our textbook (Johnson, Riess, Arnold).
The time limit was 55 minutes.

This post is Part 3 and contains Problem 7, 8, and 9.
Check out Part 1 and Part 2 for the rest of the exam problems.

Problem 7. Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
-3 & -4\\
8& 9
\end{bmatrix}$ and $\mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}$.

(a) Calculate $A\mathbf{v}$ and find the number $\lambda$ such that $A\mathbf{v}=\lambda \mathbf{v}$.

(b) Without forming $A^3$, calculate the vector $A^3\mathbf{v}$.

Problem 8. Prove that if $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ nonsingular matrices, then the product $AB$ is also nonsingular.

Problem 9.
Determine whether each of the following sentences is true or false.

(a) There is a $3\times 3$ homogeneous system that has exactly three solutions.

(b) If $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ symmetric matrices, then the sum $A+B$ is also symmetric.

(c) If $n$-dimensional vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3$ are linearly dependent, then the vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3, \mathbf{v}_4$ is also linearly dependent for any $n$-dimensional vector $\mathbf{v}_4$.

(d) If the coefficient matrix of a system of linear equations is singular, then the system is inconsistent.

Let $I$ be the $2\times 2$ identity matrix.
Then prove that $-I$ cannot be a commutator $[A, B]:=ABA^{-1}B^{-1}$ for any $2\times 2$ matrices $A$ and $B$ with determinant $1$.

An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is called nonsingular if the only vector $\mathbf{x}\in \R^n$ satisfying the equation $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$ is $\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$.
Using the definition of a nonsingular matrix, prove the following statements.

(a) If $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ nonsingular matrix, then the product $AB$ is also nonsingular.

(b) Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices and suppose that the product $AB$ is nonsingular. Then:

The matrix $B$ is nonsingular.

The matrix $A$ is nonsingular. (You may use the fact that a nonsingular matrix is invertible.)

Let $A$ be a singular $n\times n$ matrix.
Let
\[\mathbf{e}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
\vdots \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{e}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
\vdots \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \dots, \mathbf{e}_n=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0 \\
\vdots \\
1
\end{bmatrix}\]
be unit vectors in $\R^n$.

Prove that at least one of the following matrix equations
\[A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{e}_i\]
for $i=1,2,\dots, n$, must have no solution $\mathbf{x}\in \R^n$.

Let $A$ be an $n\times (n-1)$ matrix and let $\mathbf{b}$ be an $(n-1)$-dimensional vector.
Then the product $A\mathbf{b}$ is an $n$-dimensional vector.
Set the $n\times n$ matrix $B=[A_1, A_2, \dots, A_{n-1}, A\mathbf{b}]$, where $A_i$ is the $i$-th column vector of $A$.

Prove that $B$ is a singular matrix for any choice of $\mathbf{b}$.

For each of the following $3\times 3$ matrices $A$, determine whether $A$ is invertible and find the inverse $A^{-1}$ if exists by computing the augmented matrix $[A|I]$, where $I$ is the $3\times 3$ identity matrix.

Determine whether there exists a nonsingular matrix $A$ if
\[A^4=ABA^2+2A^3,\]
where $B$ is the following matrix.
\[B=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 & 1 & -1 \\
0 &-1 &0 \\
2 & 1 & -4
\end{bmatrix}.\]

If such a nonsingular matrix $A$ exists, find the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

Determine the values of $x$ so that the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 & x \\
1 &x &x \\
x & x & x
\end{bmatrix}\]
is invertible.
For those values of $x$, find the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$.

(a) Let $A$ be a $6\times 6$ matrix and suppose that $A$ can be written as
\[A=BC,\]
where $B$ is a $6\times 5$ matrix and $C$ is a $5\times 6$ matrix.

Prove that the matrix $A$ cannot be invertible.

(b) Let $A$ be a $2\times 2$ matrix and suppose that $A$ can be written as
\[A=BC,\]
where $B$ is a $ 2\times 3$ matrix and $C$ is a $3\times 2$ matrix.