Tagged: Ohio State

Find a Basis of the Subspace Spanned by Four Polynomials of Degree 3 or Less

Problem 607

Let $\calP_3$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $3$ or less.
Let
\[S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},\] where
\begin{align*}
p_1(x)&=1+3x+2x^2-x^3 & p_2(x)&=x+x^3\\
p_3(x)&=x+x^2-x^3 & p_4(x)&=3+8x+8x^3.
\end{align*}

(a) Find a basis $Q$ of the span $\Span(S)$ consisting of polynomials in $S$.

(b) For each polynomial in $S$ that is not in $Q$, find the coordinate vector with respect to the basis $Q$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Determine the Dimension of a Mysterious Vector Space From Coordinate Vectors

Problem 606

Let $V$ be a vector space and $B$ be a basis for $V$.
Let $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5$ be vectors in $V$.
Suppose that $A$ is the matrix whose columns are the coordinate vectors of $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5$ with respect to the basis $B$.

After applying the elementary row operations to $A$, we obtain the following matrix in reduced row echelon form
\[\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & 2 & 1 & 0 \\
0 & 1 & 3 & 0 & 1 \\
0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) What is the dimension of $V$?

(b) What is the dimension of $\Span\{\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5\}$?

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Matrix Representation, Rank, and Nullity of a Linear Transformation $T:\R^2\to \R^3$

Problem 605

Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation such that
\[T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \,\right)
=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
3
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and }
T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
4\\
3
\end{bmatrix} \,\right)
=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
-5 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Find the matrix representation of $T$ (with respect to the standard basis for $\R^2$).

(b) Determine the rank and nullity of $T$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Find Bases for the Null Space, Range, and the Row Space of a $5\times 4$ Matrix

Problem 604

Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\
0 &1 & 1 & 1 \\
1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 2 & 2 & 2\\
0 & 0 & 0 & 0
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Find a basis for the null space $\calN(A)$.

(b) Find a basis of the range $\calR(A)$.

(c) Find a basis of the row space for $A$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Are the Trigonometric Functions $\sin^2(x)$ and $\cos^2(x)$ Linearly Independent?

Problem 603

Let $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all continuous functions defined on the interval $[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.
Consider the functions \[f(x)=\sin^2(x) \text{ and } g(x)=\cos^2(x)\] in $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.

Prove or disprove that the functions $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ are linearly independent.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Vector Space of 2 by 2 Traceless Matrices

Problem 601

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices whose entries are real numbers.
Let
\[W=\left\{\, A\in V \quad \middle | \quad A=\begin{bmatrix}
a & b\\
c& -a
\end{bmatrix} \text{ for any } a, b, c\in \R \,\right\}.\]

(a) Show that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

(b) Find a basis of $W$.

(c) Find the dimension of $W$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Linear Algebra Midterm 1 at the Ohio State University (3/3)

Problem 572

The following problems are Midterm 1 problems of Linear Algebra (Math 2568) at the Ohio State University in Autumn 2017.
There were 9 problems that covered Chapter 1 of our textbook (Johnson, Riess, Arnold).
The time limit was 55 minutes.


This post is Part 3 and contains Problem 7, 8, and 9.
Check out Part 1 and Part 2 for the rest of the exam problems.


Problem 7. Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
-3 & -4\\
8& 9
\end{bmatrix}$ and $\mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}$.

(a) Calculate $A\mathbf{v}$ and find the number $\lambda$ such that $A\mathbf{v}=\lambda \mathbf{v}$.

(b) Without forming $A^3$, calculate the vector $A^3\mathbf{v}$.


Problem 8. Prove that if $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ nonsingular matrices, then the product $AB$ is also nonsingular.


Problem 9.
Determine whether each of the following sentences is true or false.

(a) There is a $3\times 3$ homogeneous system that has exactly three solutions.

(b) If $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ symmetric matrices, then the sum $A+B$ is also symmetric.

(c) If $n$-dimensional vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3$ are linearly dependent, then the vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3, \mathbf{v}_4$ is also linearly dependent for any $n$-dimensional vector $\mathbf{v}_4$.

(d) If the coefficient matrix of a system of linear equations is singular, then the system is inconsistent.

(e) The vectors
\[\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}\] are linearly independent.

 
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Linear Algebra Midterm 1 at the Ohio State University (2/3)

Problem 571

The following problems are Midterm 1 problems of Linear Algebra (Math 2568) at the Ohio State University in Autumn 2017.
There were 9 problems that covered Chapter 1 of our textbook (Johnson, Riess, Arnold).
The time limit was 55 minutes.


This post is Part 2 and contains Problem 4, 5, and 6.
Check out Part 1 and Part 3 for the rest of the exam problems.


Problem 4. Let
\[\mathbf{a}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{a}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
-1 \\
4
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
a \\
2
\end{bmatrix}.\]

Find all the values for $a$ so that the vector $\mathbf{b}$ is a linear combination of vectors $\mathbf{a}_1$ and $\mathbf{a}_2$.


Problem 5.
Find the inverse matrix of
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 0 & 2 & 0 \\
0 &1 & 0 & 0 \\
1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
1 & 0 & 0 & 1
\end{bmatrix}\] if it exists. If you think there is no inverse matrix of $A$, then give a reason.


Problem 6.
Consider the system of linear equations
\begin{align*}
3x_1+2x_2&=1\\
5x_1+3x_2&=2.
\end{align*}

(a) Find the coefficient matrix $A$ of the system.

(b) Find the inverse matrix of the coefficient matrix $A$.

(c) Using the inverse matrix of $A$, find the solution of the system.

(Linear Algebra Midterm Exam 1, the Ohio State University)
 
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Linear Algebra Midterm 1 at the Ohio State University (1/3)

Problem 570

The following problems are Midterm 1 problems of Linear Algebra (Math 2568) at the Ohio State University in Autumn 2017.
There were 9 problems that covered Chapter 1 of our textbook (Johnson, Riess, Arnold).
The time limit was 55 minutes.


This post is Part 1 and contains the first three problems.
Check out Part 2 and Part 3 for the rest of the exam problems.


Problem 1. Determine all possibilities for the number of solutions of each of the systems of linear equations described below.

(a) A consistent system of $5$ equations in $3$ unknowns and the rank of the system is $1$.

(b) A homogeneous system of $5$ equations in $4$ unknowns and it has a solution $x_1=1$, $x_2=2$, $x_3=3$, $x_4=4$.


Problem 2. Consider the homogeneous system of linear equations whose coefficient matrix is given by the following matrix $A$. Find the vector form for the general solution of the system.
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & -1 & -2 \\
2 &1 & -2 & -7 \\
3 & 0 & -3 & -6 \\
0 & 1 & 0 & -3
\end{bmatrix}.\]


Problem 3. Let $A$ be the following invertible matrix.
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5\\
6 & -7 & 8& 9& 10\\
11 & 12 & -13 & 14 & 15\\
16 & 17 & 18& -19 & 20\\
21 & 22 & 23 & 24 & -25
\end{bmatrix}
\] Let $I$ be the $5\times 5$ identity matrix and let $B$ be a $5\times 5$ matrix.
Suppose that $ABA^{-1}=I$.
Then determine the matrix $B$.

(Linear Algebra Midterm Exam 1, the Ohio State University)
 
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Determine Whether There Exists a Nonsingular Matrix Satisfying $A^4=ABA^2+2A^3$

Problem 486

Determine whether there exists a nonsingular matrix $A$ if
\[A^4=ABA^2+2A^3,\] where $B$ is the following matrix.
\[B=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 & 1 & -1 \\
0 &-1 &0 \\
2 & 1 & -4
\end{bmatrix}.\]

If such a nonsingular matrix $A$ exists, find the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)
 
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Compute $A^{10}\mathbf{v}$ Using Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of the Matrix $A$

Problem 485

Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & -14 & 4 \\
-1 &6 &-2 \\
-2 & 24 & -7
\end{bmatrix} \quad \text{ and }\quad \mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
4 \\
-1 \\
-7
\end{bmatrix}.\] Find $A^{10}\mathbf{v}$.

You may use the following information without proving it.
The eigenvalues of $A$ are $-1, 0, 1$. The eigenspaces are given by
\[E_{-1}=\Span\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
-1 \\
-5
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}, \quad E_{0}=\Span\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
-2 \\
1 \\
4
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}, \quad E_{1}=\Span\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
-4 \\
2 \\
7
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}.\]

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

 
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Find a Basis of the Vector Space of Polynomials of Degree 2 or Less Among Given Polynomials

Problem 481

Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials with real coefficients of degree $2$ or less.
Let $S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\}$, where
\begin{align*}
p_1(x)&=-1+x+2x^2, \quad p_2(x)=x+3x^2\\
p_3(x)&=1+2x+8x^2, \quad p_4(x)=1+x+x^2.
\end{align*}

(a) Find a basis of $P_2$ among the vectors of $S$. (Explain why it is a basis of $P_2$.)

(b) Let $B’$ be the basis you obtained in part (a).
For each vector of $S$ which is not in $B’$, find the coordinate vector of it with respect to the basis $B’$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

 
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Determine Whether Given Subsets in $\R^4$ are Subspaces or Not

Problem 480

(a) Let $S$ be the subset of $\R^4$ consisting of vectors $\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y \\
z \\
w
\end{bmatrix}$ satisfying
\[2x+4y+3z+7w+1=0.\] Determine whether $S$ is a subspace of $\R^4$. If so prove it. If not, explain why it is not a subspace.

(b) Let $S$ be the subset of $\R^4$ consisting of vectors $\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y \\
z \\
w
\end{bmatrix}$ satisfying
\[2x+4y+3z+7w=0.\] Determine whether $S$ is a subspace of $\R^4$. If so prove it. If not, explain why it is not a subspace.

(These two problems look similar but note that the equations are different.)

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)
 
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Find an Orthonormal Basis of the Range of a Linear Transformation

Problem 478

Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation given by
\[T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2
\end{bmatrix} \,\right)
=
\begin{bmatrix}
x_1-x_2 \\
x_2 \\
x_1+ x_2
\end{bmatrix}.\] Find an orthonormal basis of the range of $T$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

 
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