Note that we always have $H \subset N_G(H)$.
Hence our goal is to find an element in $N_G(H)$ that does not belong to $H$.

Since $G$ is a nilpotent group, it has a lower central series
\[ G=G^{0} \triangleright G^{1} \triangleright \cdots \triangleright G^{n}=\{e\},\]
where $G=G^{0}$ and $G^{i}$ is defined by
\[G^i=[G^{i-1},G]=\langle [x,y]=xyx^{-1}y^{-1} \mid x \in G^{i-1}, y \in G \rangle\]
successively, and $e$ is the identity element of $G$.

Since $H$ is a proper subgroup of $G$, there is an index $k$ such that
\[G^{k+1} \subset H \text{ but } G^{k} \nsubseteq H.\]

Take any $x\in G^{k} \setminus H$.
We claim that $x \in N_G(H)$.

For any $y\in H$, it follows from the definition of $G^{k+1}$ that
\[ [x,y] \in G^{k+1} \subset H.\]
Hence $xyx^{-1}y^{-1}\in H$.
Since $y\in H$, we see that $xyx^{-1}\in H$.
As this is true for any $y\in H$, we conclude that $x\in N_G(H)$.
The claim is proved.

Since $x$ does not belong to $H$, we conclude that $H \subsetneq N_G(H)$.

Normalizer and Centralizer of a Subgroup of Order 2
Let $H$ be a subgroup of order $2$. Let $N_G(H)$ be the normalizer of $H$ in $G$ and $C_G(H)$ be the centralizer of $H$ in $G$.
(a) Show that $N_G(H)=C_G(H)$.
(b) If $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$, then show that $H$ is a subgroup of the center $Z(G)$ of […]

Centralizer, Normalizer, and Center of the Dihedral Group $D_{8}$
Let $D_8$ be the dihedral group of order $8$.
Using the generators and relations, we have
\[D_{8}=\langle r,s \mid r^4=s^2=1, sr=r^{-1}s\rangle.\]
(a) Let $A$ be the subgroup of $D_8$ generated by $r$, that is, $A=\{1,r,r^2,r^3\}$.
Prove that the centralizer […]

If a Subgroup Contains a Sylow Subgroup, then the Normalizer is the Subgroup itself
Let $G$ be a finite group and $P$ be a nontrivial Sylow subgroup of $G$.
Let $H$ be a subgroup of $G$ containing the normalizer $N_G(P)$ of $P$ in $G$. Then show that $N_G(H)=H$.
Hint.
Use the conjugate part of the Sylow theorem.
See the second statement of the Sylow […]

Infinite Cyclic Groups Do Not Have Composition Series
Let $G$ be an infinite cyclic group. Then show that $G$ does not have a composition series.
Proof.
Let $G=\langle a \rangle$ and suppose that $G$ has a composition series
\[G=G_0\rhd G_1 \rhd \cdots G_{m-1} \rhd G_m=\{e\},\]
where $e$ is the identity element of […]

Torsion Subgroup of an Abelian Group, Quotient is a Torsion-Free Abelian Group
Let $A$ be an abelian group and let $T(A)$ denote the set of elements of $A$ that have finite order.
(a) Prove that $T(A)$ is a subgroup of $A$.
(The subgroup $T(A)$ is called the torsion subgroup of the abelian group $A$ and elements of $T(A)$ are called torsion […]

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Let $G$ be a finite group of order $n$ and suppose that $p$ is the smallest prime number dividing $n$.
Then prove that any subgroup of index $p$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.
Hint.
Consider the action of the group $G$ on the left cosets $G/H$ by left […]

Special Linear Group is a Normal Subgroup of General Linear Group
Let $G=\GL(n, \R)$ be the general linear group of degree $n$, that is, the group of all $n\times n$ invertible matrices.
Consider the subset of $G$ defined by
\[\SL(n, \R)=\{X\in \GL(n,\R) \mid \det(X)=1\}.\]
Prove that $\SL(n, \R)$ is a subgroup of $G$. Furthermore, prove that […]