Let $G$ be a group. Assume that $H$ and $K$ are both normal subgroups of $G$ and $H \cap K=1$. Then for any elements $h \in H$ and $k\in K$, show that $hk=kh$.

It suffices to show that $h^{-1}k^{-1}hk \in H \cap K$.
In fact, if this it true then we have $h^{-1}k^{-1}hk=1$, and thus $hk=kh$.

Since $h\in H$ and $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$, we see that the conjugate $k^{-1}hk\in H$.
Thus we have
\[h^{-1}k^{-1}hk =h^{-1}(k^{-1}hk)\in H. \tag{*}\]

Also, since $k^{-1}\in K$ and $K$ is a normal subgroup of $G$, we have the conjugate $h^{-1}k^{-1}h\in K$.
Hence, we see that
\[h^{-1}k^{-1}hk =(h^{-1}k^{-1}h)k\in K. \tag{**}\]

From (*) and (**), we see that the element $h^{-1}k^{-1}hk$ is in both $H$ and $K$, hence in $H\cap K$ as claimed.

Abelian Normal Subgroup, Intersection, and Product of Groups
Let $G$ be a group and let $A$ be an abelian subgroup of $G$ with $A \triangleleft G$.
(That is, $A$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.)
If $B$ is any subgroup of $G$, then show that
\[A \cap B \triangleleft AB.\]
Proof.
First of all, since $A \triangleleft G$, the […]

If a Sylow Subgroup is Normal in a Normal Subgroup, it is a Normal Subgroup
Let $G$ be a finite group. Suppose that $p$ is a prime number that divides the order of $G$.
Let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $G$ and let $P$ be a $p$-Sylow subgroup of $G$.
Show that if $P$ is normal in $N$, then $P$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.
Hint.
It follows from […]

Two Quotients Groups are Abelian then Intersection Quotient is Abelian
Let $K, N$ be normal subgroups of a group $G$. Suppose that the quotient groups $G/K$ and $G/N$ are both abelian groups. Then show that the group
\[G/(K \cap N)\]
is also an abelian group.
Hint.
We use the following fact to prove the problem.
Lemma: For a […]

Conjugate of the Centralizer of a Set is the Centralizer of the Conjugate of the Set
Let $X$ be a subset of a group $G$. Let $C_G(X)$ be the centralizer subgroup of $X$ in $G$.
For any $g \in G$, show that $gC_G(X)g^{-1}=C_G(gXg^{-1})$.
Proof.
$(\subset)$ We first show that $gC_G(X)g^{-1} \subset C_G(gXg^{-1})$.
Take any $h\in C_G(X)$. Then for […]

Group Generated by Commutators of Two Normal Subgroups is a Normal Subgroup
Let $G$ be a group and $H$ and $K$ be subgroups of $G$.
For $h \in H$, and $k \in K$, we define the commutator $[h, k]:=hkh^{-1}k^{-1}$.
Let $[H,K]$ be a subgroup of $G$ generated by all such commutators.
Show that if $H$ and $K$ are normal subgroups of $G$, then the subgroup […]

Commutator Subgroup and Abelian Quotient Group
Let $G$ be a group and let $D(G)=[G,G]$ be the commutator subgroup of $G$.
Let $N$ be a subgroup of $G$.
Prove that the subgroup $N$ is normal in $G$ and $G/N$ is an abelian group if and only if $N \supset D(G)$.
Definitions.
Recall that for any $a, b \in G$, the […]

The Preimage of a Normal Subgroup Under a Group Homomorphism is Normal
Let $G$ and $G'$ be groups and let $f:G \to G'$ be a group homomorphism.
If $H'$ is a normal subgroup of the group $G'$, then show that $H=f^{-1}(H')$ is a normal subgroup of the group $G$.
Proof.
We prove that $H$ is normal in $G$. (The fact that $H$ is a subgroup […]

Any Subgroup of Index 2 in a Finite Group is Normal
Show that any subgroup of index $2$ in a group is a normal subgroup.
Hint.
Left (right) cosets partition the group into disjoint sets.
Consider both left and right cosets.
Proof.
Let $H$ be a subgroup of index $2$ in a group $G$.
Let $e \in G$ be the identity […]