Author: Yu

Find a Row-Equivalent Matrix which is in Reduced Row Echelon Form and Determine the Rank

Problem 643

For each of the following matrices, find a row-equivalent matrix which is in reduced row echelon form. Then determine the rank of each matrix.

(a) $A = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 3 \\ -2 & 2 \end{bmatrix}$.

(b) $B = \begin{bmatrix} 2 & 6 & -2 \\ 3 & -2 & 8 \end{bmatrix}$.

(c) $C = \begin{bmatrix} 2 & -2 & 4 \\ 4 & 1 & -2 \\ 6 & -1 & 2 \end{bmatrix}$.

(d) $D = \begin{bmatrix} -2 \\ 3 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}$.

(e) $E = \begin{bmatrix} -2 & 3 & 1 \end{bmatrix}$.

 
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Prove that the Dot Product is Commutative: $\mathbf{v}\cdot \mathbf{w}= \mathbf{w} \cdot \mathbf{v}$

Problem 637

Let $\mathbf{v}$ and $\mathbf{w}$ be two $n \times 1$ column vectors.

(a) Prove that $\mathbf{v}^\trans \mathbf{w} = \mathbf{w}^\trans \mathbf{v}$.

(b) Provide an example to show that $\mathbf{v} \mathbf{w}^\trans$ is not always equal to $\mathbf{w} \mathbf{v}^\trans$.

 
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Matrix Operations with Transpose

Problem 636

Calculate the following expressions, using the following matrices:
\[A = \begin{bmatrix} 2 & 3 \\ -5 & 1 \end{bmatrix}, \qquad B = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & -1 \\ 1 & -1 \end{bmatrix}, \qquad \mathbf{v} = \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ -4 \end{bmatrix}\]

(a) $A B^\trans + \mathbf{v} \mathbf{v}^\trans$.

(b) $A \mathbf{v} – 2 \mathbf{v}$.

(c) $\mathbf{v}^{\trans} B$.

(d) $\mathbf{v}^\trans \mathbf{v} + \mathbf{v}^\trans B A^\trans \mathbf{v}$.

 
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The Vector $S^{-1}\mathbf{v}$ is the Coordinate Vector of $\mathbf{v}$

Problem 632

Suppose that $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$ is a basis for $\R^2$. Let $S:=[\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2]$.
Note that as the column vectors of $S$ are linearly independent, the matrix $S$ is invertible.

Prove that for each vector $\mathbf{v} \in V$, the vector $S^{-1}\mathbf{v}$ is the coordinate vector of $\mathbf{v}$ with respect to the basis $B$.

 
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Find Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, and Diagonalize the 2 by 2 Matrix

Problem 630

Consider the matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix}
a & -b\\
b& a
\end{bmatrix}$, where $a$ and $b$ are real numbers and $b\neq 0$.

(a) Find all eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, determine the eigenspace $E_{\lambda}$.

(c) Diagonalize the matrix $A$ by finding a nonsingular matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.

 
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Union of Two Subgroups is Not a Group

Problem 625

Let $G$ be a group and let $H_1, H_2$ be subgroups of $G$ such that $H_1 \not \subset H_2$ and $H_2 \not \subset H_1$.

(a) Prove that the union $H_1 \cup H_2$ is never a subgroup in $G$.

(b) Prove that a group cannot be written as the union of two proper subgroups.

 
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Ring Homomorphisms and Radical Ideals

Problem 624

Let $R$ and $R’$ be commutative rings and let $f:R\to R’$ be a ring homomorphism.
Let $I$ and $I’$ be ideals of $R$ and $R’$, respectively.

(a) Prove that $f(\sqrt{I}\,) \subset \sqrt{f(I)}$.

(b) Prove that $\sqrt{f^{-1}(I’)}=f^{-1}(\sqrt{I’})$

(c) Suppose that $f$ is surjective and $\ker(f)\subset I$. Then prove that $f(\sqrt{I}\,) =\sqrt{f(I)}$

 
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