Author: Yu

The Set of Square Elements in the Multiplicative Group $(\Zmod{p})^*$

Problem 616

Suppose that $p$ is a prime number greater than $3$.
Consider the multiplicative group $G=(\Zmod{p})^*$ of order $p-1$.

(a) Prove that the set of squares $S=\{x^2\mid x\in G\}$ is a subgroup of the multiplicative group $G$.

(b) Determine the index $[G : S]$.

(c) Assume that $-1\notin S$. Then prove that for each $a\in G$ we have either $a\in S$ or $-a\in S$.

 
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Group Homomorphism from $\Z/n\Z$ to $\Z/m\Z$ When $m$ Divides $n$

Problem 613

Let $m$ and $n$ be positive integers such that $m \mid n$.

(a) Prove that the map $\phi:\Zmod{n} \to \Zmod{m}$ sending $a+n\Z$ to $a+m\Z$ for any $a\in \Z$ is well-defined.

(b) Prove that $\phi$ is a group homomorphism.

(c) Prove that $\phi$ is surjective.

(d) Determine the group structure of the kernel of $\phi$.

 
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Subspace Spanned by Trigonometric Functions $\sin^2(x)$ and $\cos^2(x)$

Problem 612

Let $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all real-valued continuous functions defined on the interval $[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.
Consider the subspace $W=\Span\{\sin^2(x), \cos^2(x)\}$ spanned by functions $\sin^2(x)$ and $\cos^2(x)$.

(a) Prove that the set $B=\{\sin^2(x), \cos^2(x)\}$ is a basis for $W$.

(b) Prove that the set $\{\sin^2(x)-\cos^2(x), 1\}$ is a basis for $W$.

 
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Find a Basis of the Subspace Spanned by Four Polynomials of Degree 3 or Less

Problem 607

Let $\calP_3$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $3$ or less.
Let
\[S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},\] where
\begin{align*}
p_1(x)&=1+3x+2x^2-x^3 & p_2(x)&=x+x^3\\
p_3(x)&=x+x^2-x^3 & p_4(x)&=3+8x+8x^3.
\end{align*}

(a) Find a basis $Q$ of the span $\Span(S)$ consisting of polynomials in $S$.

(b) For each polynomial in $S$ that is not in $Q$, find the coordinate vector with respect to the basis $Q$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Determine the Dimension of a Mysterious Vector Space From Coordinate Vectors

Problem 606

Let $V$ be a vector space and $B$ be a basis for $V$.
Let $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5$ be vectors in $V$.
Suppose that $A$ is the matrix whose columns are the coordinate vectors of $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5$ with respect to the basis $B$.

After applying the elementary row operations to $A$, we obtain the following matrix in reduced row echelon form
\[\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & 2 & 1 & 0 \\
0 & 1 & 3 & 0 & 1 \\
0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) What is the dimension of $V$?

(b) What is the dimension of $\Span\{\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5\}$?

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Matrix Representation, Rank, and Nullity of a Linear Transformation $T:\R^2\to \R^3$

Problem 605

Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation such that
\[T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \,\right)
=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
3
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and }
T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
4\\
3
\end{bmatrix} \,\right)
=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
-5 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Find the matrix representation of $T$ (with respect to the standard basis for $\R^2$).

(b) Determine the rank and nullity of $T$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Find Bases for the Null Space, Range, and the Row Space of a $5\times 4$ Matrix

Problem 604

Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\
0 &1 & 1 & 1 \\
1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 2 & 2 & 2\\
0 & 0 & 0 & 0
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Find a basis for the null space $\calN(A)$.

(b) Find a basis of the range $\calR(A)$.

(c) Find a basis of the row space for $A$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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Are the Trigonometric Functions $\sin^2(x)$ and $\cos^2(x)$ Linearly Independent?

Problem 603

Let $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all continuous functions defined on the interval $[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.
Consider the functions \[f(x)=\sin^2(x) \text{ and } g(x)=\cos^2(x)\] in $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.

Prove or disprove that the functions $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ are linearly independent.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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