# Author: Yu

## Problem 659

Fix the row vector $\mathbf{b} = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 3 & -1 \end{bmatrix}$, and let $\R^3$ be the vector space of $3 \times 1$ column vectors. Define
$W = \{ \mathbf{v} \in \R^3 \mid \mathbf{b} \mathbf{v} = 0 \}.$ Prove that $W$ is a vector subspace of $\R^3$.

## Problem 658

Let $V$ be the vector space of $n \times n$ matrices with real coefficients, and define
$W = \{ \mathbf{v} \in V \mid \mathbf{v} \mathbf{w} = \mathbf{w} \mathbf{v} \mbox{ for all } \mathbf{w} \in V \}.$ The set $W$ is called the center of $V$.

Prove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

## Problem 657

Suppose that $M, P$ are two $n \times n$ non-singular matrix. Prove that there is a matrix $N$ such that $MN = P$.

## Problem 656

Suppose that an $n \times m$ matrix $M$ is composed of the column vectors $\mathbf{b}_1 , \cdots , \mathbf{b}_m$.

Prove that a vector $\mathbf{v} \in \R^n$ can be written as a linear combination of the column vectors if and only if there is a vector $\mathbf{x}$ which solves the equation $M \mathbf{x} = \mathbf{v}$.

## Problem 655

Consider the matrix $M = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 4 \\ 3 & 12 \end{bmatrix}$.

(a) Show that $M$ is singular.

(b) Find a non-zero vector $\mathbf{v}$ such that $M \mathbf{v} = \mathbf{0}$, where $\mathbf{0}$ is the $2$-dimensional zero vector.

## Problem 654

Suppose $M$ is an $n \times n$ upper-triangular matrix.

If the diagonal entries of $M$ are all non-zero, then prove that the column vectors are linearly independent.

Does the conclusion hold if we do not assume that $M$ has non-zero diagonal entries?

## Problem 653

Write the vector $\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 3 \\ -1 \end{bmatrix}$ as a linear combination of the vectors
$\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} , \, \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ -2 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} , \, \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 0 \\ 4 \end{bmatrix}.$

## Problem 652

Prove that any set of vectors which contains the zero vector is linearly dependent.

## Problem 651

(a) Find a function
$g(\theta) = a \cos(\theta) + b \cos(2 \theta) + c \cos(3 \theta)$ such that $g(0) = g(\pi/2) = g(\pi) = 0$, where $a, b, c$ are constants.

(b) Find real numbers $a, b, c$ such that the function
$g(\theta) = a \cos(\theta) + b \cos(2 \theta) + c \cos(3 \theta)$ satisfies $g(0) = 3$, $g(\pi/2) = 1$, and $g(\pi) = -5$.

## Problem 650

Find a quadratic function $f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c$ such that $f(1) = 3$, $f'(1) = 3$, and $f^{\prime\prime}(1) = 2$.

Here, $f'(x)$ and $f^{\prime\prime}(x)$ denote the first and second derivatives, respectively.

## Problem 649

A 2-digit number has two properties: The digits sum to 11, and if the number is written with digits reversed, and subtracted from the original number, the result is 45.

Find the number.

## Problem 648

Determine whether the following augmented matrices are in reduced row echelon form, and calculate the solution sets of their associated systems of linear equations.

(a) $\left[\begin{array}{rrr|r} 1 & 0 & 0 & 2 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & -3 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 6 \end{array} \right]$.

(b) $\left[\begin{array}{rrr|r} 1 & 0 & 3 & -4 \\ 0 & 1 & 2 & 0 \end{array} \right]$.

(c) $\left[\begin{array}{rr|r} 1 & 2 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & -1 \end{array} \right]$.

## Problem 647

Recall that a matrix $A$ is symmetric if $A^\trans = A$, where $A^\trans$ is the transpose of $A$.

Is it true that if $A$ is a symmetric matrix and in reduced row echelon form, then $A$ is diagonal? If so, prove it.

Otherwise, provide a counterexample.

## Problem 646

(a) Find all $3 \times 3$ matrices which are in reduced row echelon form and have rank 1.

(b) Find all such matrices with rank 2.

## Problem 645

Prove that if $A$ is an $n \times n$ matrix with rank $n$, then $\rref(A)$ is the identity matrix.

Here $\rref(A)$ is the matrix in reduced row echelon form that is row equivalent to the matrix $A$.

## Problem 644

If $A, B$ have the same rank, can we conclude that they are row-equivalent?

If so, then prove it. If not, then provide a counterexample.

## Problem 643

For each of the following matrices, find a row-equivalent matrix which is in reduced row echelon form. Then determine the rank of each matrix.

(a) $A = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 3 \\ -2 & 2 \end{bmatrix}$.

(b) $B = \begin{bmatrix} 2 & 6 & -2 \\ 3 & -2 & 8 \end{bmatrix}$.

(c) $C = \begin{bmatrix} 2 & -2 & 4 \\ 4 & 1 & -2 \\ 6 & -1 & 2 \end{bmatrix}$.

(d) $D = \begin{bmatrix} -2 \\ 3 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}$.

(e) $E = \begin{bmatrix} -2 & 3 & 1 \end{bmatrix}$.

## Problem 642

If $A, B, C$ are three $m \times n$ matrices such that $A$ is row-equivalent to $B$ and $B$ is row-equivalent to $C$, then can we conclude that $A$ is row-equivalent to $C$?

If so, then prove it. If not, then provide a counterexample.

## Problem 641

Let $\mathbf{v} = \begin{bmatrix} 2 & -5 & -1 \end{bmatrix}$.

Find all $3 \times 1$ column vectors $\mathbf{w}$ such that $\mathbf{v} \mathbf{w} = 0$.

## Problem 640

Let $\mathbf{v}$ be an $n \times 1$ column vector.

Prove that $\mathbf{v} \mathbf{v}^\trans$ is a symmetric matrix.