Category: Group Theory

Eckmann–Hilton Argument: Group Operation is a Group Homomorphism

Problem 268

Let $G$ be a group with the identity element $e$ and suppose that we have a group homomorphism $\phi$ from the direct product $G \times G$ to $G$ satisfying
\[\phi(e, g)=g \text{ and } \phi(g, e)=g, \tag{*}\] for any $g\in G$.

Let $\mu: G\times G \to G$ be a map defined by
\[\mu(g, h)=gh.\] (That is, $\mu$ is the group operation on $G$.)

Then prove that $\phi=\mu$.
Also prove that the group $G$ is abelian.

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Equivalent Definitions of Characteristic Subgroups. Center is Characteristic.

Problem 246

Let $H$ be a subgroup of a group $G$. We call $H$ characteristic in $G$ if for any automorphism $\sigma\in \Aut(G)$ of $G$, we have $\sigma(H)=H$.

(a) Prove that if $\sigma(H) \subset H$ for all $\sigma \in \Aut(G)$, then $H$ is characteristic in $G$.

(b) Prove that the center $Z(G)$ of $G$ is characteristic in $G$.

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A Group Homomorphism is Injective if and only if Monic

Problem 243

Let $f:G\to G’$ be a group homomorphism. We say that $f$ is monic whenever we have $fg_1=fg_2$, where $g_1:K\to G$ and $g_2:K \to G$ are group homomorphisms for some group $K$, we have $g_1=g_2$.

Then prove that a group homomorphism $f: G \to G’$ is injective if and only if it is monic.

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No Finite Abelian Group is Divisible

Problem 240

A nontrivial abelian group $A$ is called divisible if for each element $a\in A$ and each nonzero integer $k$, there is an element $x \in A$ such that $x^k=a$.
(Here the group operation of $A$ is written multiplicatively. In additive notation, the equation is written as $kx=a$.) That is, $A$ is divisible if each element has a $k$-th root in $A$.

(a) Prove that the additive group of rational numbers $\Q$ is divisible.

(b) Prove that no finite abelian group is divisible.

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Group of $p$-Power Roots of 1 is Isomorphic to a Proper Quotient of Itself

Problem 221

Let $p$ be a prime number. Let
\[G=\{z\in \C \mid z^{p^n}=1\} \] be the group of $p$-power roots of $1$ in $\C$.

Show that the map $\Psi:G\to G$ mapping $z$ to $z^p$ is a surjective homomorphism.
Also deduce from this that $G$ is isomorphic to a proper quotient of $G$ itself.

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Group Homomorphism, Conjugate, Center, and Abelian group

Problem 209

Let $G$ be a group. We fix an element $x$ of $G$ and define a map
\[ \Psi_x: G\to G\] by mapping $g\in G$ to $xgx^{-1} \in G$.
Then prove the followings.
(a) The map $\Psi_x$ is a group homomorphism.

(b) The map $\Psi_x=\id$ if and only if $x\in Z(G)$, where $Z(G)$ is the center of the group $G$.

(c) The map $\Psi_y=\id$ for all $y\in G$ if and only if $G$ is an abelian group.

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