# Category: Linear Algebra

## Problem 641

Let $\mathbf{v} = \begin{bmatrix} 2 & -5 & -1 \end{bmatrix}$.

Find all $3 \times 1$ column vectors $\mathbf{w}$ such that $\mathbf{v} \mathbf{w} = 0$.

## Problem 640

Let $\mathbf{v}$ be an $n \times 1$ column vector.

Prove that $\mathbf{v} \mathbf{v}^\trans$ is a symmetric matrix.

## Problem 639

Let $\mathbf{v}$ be an $n \times 1$ column vector.

Prove that $\mathbf{v}^\trans \mathbf{v} = 0$ if and only if $\mathbf{v}$ is the zero vector $\mathbf{0}$.

## Problem 638

Let $\mathbf{v}$ and $\mathbf{w}$ be two $n \times 1$ column vectors.

Prove that $\tr ( \mathbf{v} \mathbf{w}^\trans ) = \mathbf{v}^\trans \mathbf{w}$.

## Problem 637

Let $\mathbf{v}$ and $\mathbf{w}$ be two $n \times 1$ column vectors.

(a) Prove that $\mathbf{v}^\trans \mathbf{w} = \mathbf{w}^\trans \mathbf{v}$.

(b) Provide an example to show that $\mathbf{v} \mathbf{w}^\trans$ is not always equal to $\mathbf{w} \mathbf{v}^\trans$.

## Problem 636

Calculate the following expressions, using the following matrices:
$A = \begin{bmatrix} 2 & 3 \\ -5 & 1 \end{bmatrix}, \qquad B = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & -1 \\ 1 & -1 \end{bmatrix}, \qquad \mathbf{v} = \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ -4 \end{bmatrix}$

(a) $A B^\trans + \mathbf{v} \mathbf{v}^\trans$.

(b) $A \mathbf{v} – 2 \mathbf{v}$.

(c) $\mathbf{v}^{\trans} B$.

(d) $\mathbf{v}^\trans \mathbf{v} + \mathbf{v}^\trans B A^\trans \mathbf{v}$.

## Problem 635

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n \times n$ matrices, and $\mathbf{v}$ an $n \times 1$ column vector.

Use the matrix components to prove that $(A + B) \mathbf{v} = A\mathbf{v} + B\mathbf{v}$.

## Problem 634

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n \times n$ matrices.

Is it always true that $\tr (A B) = \tr (A) \tr (B)$?

If it is true, prove it. If not, give a counterexample.

## Problem 633

Let $A$ be an $n \times n$ matrix.

Is it true that $\tr ( A^\trans ) = \tr(A)$? If it is true, prove it. If not, give a counterexample.

## Problem 632

Suppose that $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$ is a basis for $\R^2$. Let $S:=[\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2]$.
Note that as the column vectors of $S$ are linearly independent, the matrix $S$ is invertible.

Prove that for each vector $\mathbf{v} \in V$, the vector $S^{-1}\mathbf{v}$ is the coordinate vector of $\mathbf{v}$ with respect to the basis $B$.

## Problem 631

Let $A=\begin{bmatrix} a & b\\ c& d \end{bmatrix}$ be an $2\times 2$ matrix.

Express the eigenvalues of $A$ in terms of the trace and the determinant of $A$.

## Problem 630

Consider the matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix} a & -b\\ b& a \end{bmatrix}$, where $a$ and $b$ are real numbers and $b\neq 0$.

(a) Find all eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, determine the eigenspace $E_{\lambda}$.

(c) Diagonalize the matrix $A$ by finding a nonsingular matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.

## Problem 629

Diagonalize the $2\times 2$ matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix} 2 & -1\\ -1& 2 \end{bmatrix}$ by finding a nonsingular matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.

## Problem 627

Determine whether the function $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ defined by
$T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \end{bmatrix} \,\right) = \begin{bmatrix} x_+y \\ x+1 \\ 3y \end{bmatrix}$ is a linear transformation.

## Problem 622

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix. Suppose that the sum of elements in each row of $A$ is zero.

Then prove that the matrix $A$ is singular.

## Problem 612

Let $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all real-valued continuous functions defined on the interval $[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.
Consider the subspace $W=\Span\{\sin^2(x), \cos^2(x)\}$ spanned by functions $\sin^2(x)$ and $\cos^2(x)$.

(a) Prove that the set $B=\{\sin^2(x), \cos^2(x)\}$ is a basis for $W$.

(b) Prove that the set $\{\sin^2(x)-\cos^2(x), 1\}$ is a basis for $W$.

## Problem 611

An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is called orthogonal if $A^{\trans}A=I$.
Let $V$ be the vector space of all real $2\times 2$ matrices.

Consider the subset
$W:=\{A\in V \mid \text{A is an orthogonal matrix}\}.$ Prove or disprove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

## Problem 610

Let $T:\R^2\to \R^2$ be a linear transformation such that it maps the vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2$ as indicated in the figure below.

Find the matrix representation $A$ of the linear transformation $T$.

## Problem 609

Let $A$ be a $2\times 2$ real symmetric matrix.
Prove that all the eigenvalues of $A$ are real numbers by considering the characteristic polynomial of $A$.

## Problem 608

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices and assume that they commute: $AB=BA$.
Then prove that the matrices $A$ and $B$ share at least one common eigenvector.