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  • Find a Quadratic Function Satisfying Conditions on DerivativesFind a Quadratic Function Satisfying Conditions on Derivatives Find a quadratic function $f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c$ such that $f(1) = 3$, $f'(1) = 3$, and $f^{\prime\prime}(1) = 2$. Here, $f'(x)$ and $f^{\prime\prime}(x)$ denote the first and second derivatives, respectively.   Solution. Each condition required on $f$ can be turned […]
  • Two Matrices with the Same Characteristic Polynomial. Diagonalize if Possible.Two Matrices with the Same Characteristic Polynomial. Diagonalize if Possible. Let \[A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 3 & 3 \\ -3 &-5 &-3 \\ 3 & 3 & 1 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } B=\begin{bmatrix} 2 & 4 & 3 \\ -4 &-6 &-3 \\ 3 & 3 & 1 \end{bmatrix}.\] For this problem, you may use the fact that both matrices have the same characteristic […]
  • Find a basis for $\Span(S)$, where $S$ is a Set of Four VectorsFind a basis for $\Span(S)$, where $S$ is a Set of Four Vectors Find a basis for $\Span(S)$ where $S= \left\{ \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} , \begin{bmatrix} -1 \\ -2 \\ -1 \end{bmatrix} , \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 6 \\ -2 \end{bmatrix} , \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 3 \end{bmatrix} \right\}$.   Solution. We […]
  • Complex Conjugates of Eigenvalues of a Real Matrix are EigenvaluesComplex Conjugates of Eigenvalues of a Real Matrix are Eigenvalues Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ real matrix. Prove that if $\lambda$ is an eigenvalue of $A$, then its complex conjugate $\bar{\lambda}$ is also an eigenvalue of $A$.   We give two proofs. Proof 1. Let $\mathbf{x}$ be an eigenvector corresponding to the […]
  • Isomorphism Criterion of Semidirect Product of GroupsIsomorphism Criterion of Semidirect Product of Groups Let $A$, $B$ be groups. Let $\phi:B \to \Aut(A)$ be a group homomorphism. The semidirect product $A \rtimes_{\phi} B$ with respect to $\phi$ is a group whose underlying set is $A \times B$ with group operation \[(a_1, b_1)\cdot (a_2, b_2)=(a_1\phi(b_1)(a_2), b_1b_2),\] where $a_i […]
  • Ring Homomorphisms and Radical IdealsRing Homomorphisms and Radical Ideals Let $R$ and $R'$ be commutative rings and let $f:R\to R'$ be a ring homomorphism. Let $I$ and $I'$ be ideals of $R$ and $R'$, respectively. (a) Prove that $f(\sqrt{I}\,) \subset \sqrt{f(I)}$. (b) Prove that $\sqrt{f^{-1}(I')}=f^{-1}(\sqrt{I'})$ (c) Suppose that $f$ is […]
  • A Diagonalizable Matrix which is Not Diagonalized by a Real Nonsingular MatrixA Diagonalizable Matrix which is Not Diagonalized by a Real Nonsingular Matrix Prove that the matrix \[A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1\\ -1& 0 \end{bmatrix}\] is diagonalizable. Prove, however, that $A$ cannot be diagonalized by a real nonsingular matrix. That is, there is no real nonsingular matrix $S$ such that $S^{-1}AS$ is a diagonal […]
  • How to Find Eigenvalues of a Specific Matrix.How to Find Eigenvalues of a Specific Matrix. Find all eigenvalues of the following $n \times n$ matrix. \[ A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 &1 \\ 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 & 0\\ 0 & 1 & \cdots & 0 &0\\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 0 & […]

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