Conditional Probability Problems about Die Rolling

Probability problems

Problem 728

A fair six-sided die is rolled.

(1) What is the conditional probability that the die lands on a prime number given the die lands on an odd number?

(2) What is the conditional probability that the die lands on 1 given the die lands on a prime number?

LoadingAdd to solve later

Sponsored Links

Solution.

Let $E$ and $F$ be events. Then the conditional probability that $E$ occurs given $F$ has occurred, which is denoted by $P(E\mid F)$, is defined as
\[P(E \mid F) = \frac{P(E \cap F)}{P(F)}.\]

For uniform space (such as fair die rolling), this can be rewritten as
\[P(E \mid F) = \frac{|E \cap F|}{|F|}.\] Here the notation $|A|$ means the number of elements in $A$.

Solution (1)

Let $E = \{2, 3, 5\}$ be the set of prime number faces of a die. Let $F = \{1, 3, 5\}$ be the set of odd faces of a die. Then the required conditional probability can be calculated as follows:
\begin{align*}
P(E \mid F) &= \frac{|E \cap F|}{|F|}\\
&= \frac{|\{2, 3, 5\} \cap \{1, 3, 5\}|}{|\{1, 3, 5\}|}\\
&= \frac{|\{3, 5\}|}{\{1,3,5\}|}\\
&= \frac{2}{3}
\end{align*}

Solution (2)

The required conditional probability is
\begin{align*}
P(\{1\} \mid E) &= \frac{|\{1\} \cap E|}{|E|}\\
&= \frac{|\{1\} \cap \{2, 3, 5\}|}{|\{2, 3, 5\}|}\\
&= \frac{|\emptyset|}{|\{2, 3, 5\}|}\\
&= \frac{0}{3} = 0
\end{align*}


LoadingAdd to solve later

Sponsored Links

More from my site

  • Probability Problems about Two DiceProbability Problems about Two Dice Two fair and distinguishable six-sided dice are rolled. (1) What is the probability that the sum of the upturned faces will equal $5$? (2) What is the probability that the outcome of the second die is strictly greater than the first die? Solution. The sample space $S$ is […]
  • Overall Fraction of Defective Smartphones of Three FactoriesOverall Fraction of Defective Smartphones of Three Factories A certain model of smartphone is manufactured by three factories A, B, and C. Factories A, B, and C produce $60\%$, $25\%$, and $15\%$ of the smartphones, respectively. Suppose that their defective rates are $5\%$, $2\%$, and $7\%$, respectively. Determine the overall fraction of […]
  • What is the Probability that All Coins Land Heads When Four Coins are Tossed If…?What is the Probability that All Coins Land Heads When Four Coins are Tossed If…? Four fair coins are tossed. (1) What is the probability that all coins land heads? (2) What is the probability that all coins land heads if the first coin is heads? (3) What is the probability that all coins land heads if at least one coin lands […]
  • What is the Probability that Selected Coin was Two-Headed?What is the Probability that Selected Coin was Two-Headed? There are three coins in a box. The first coin is two-headed. The second one is a fair coin. The third one is a biased coin that comes up heads $75\%$ of the time. When one of the three coins was picked at random from the box and tossed, it landed heads. What is the probability […]
  • If At Least One of Two Coins Lands Heads, What is the Conditional Probability that the First Coin Lands Heads?If At Least One of Two Coins Lands Heads, What is the Conditional Probability that the First Coin Lands Heads? Two fair coins are tossed. Given that at least one of them lands heads, what is the conditional probability that the first coin lands heads? We give two proofs. The first one uses Bays' theorem and the second one simply uses the definition of the conditional […]
  • Independent Events of Playing CardsIndependent Events of Playing Cards A card is chosen randomly from a deck of the standard 52 playing cards. Let $E$ be the event that the selected card is a king and let $F$ be the event that it is a heart. Prove or disprove that the events $E$ and $F$ are independent. Definition of Independence Events […]
  • Jewelry Company Quality Test Failure ProbabilityJewelry Company Quality Test Failure Probability A jewelry company requires for its products to pass three tests before they are sold at stores. For gold rings, 90 % passes the first test, 85 % passes the second test, and 80 % passes the third test. If a product fails any test, the product is thrown away and it will not take the […]
  • Pick Two Balls from a Box, What is the Probability Both are Red?Pick Two Balls from a Box, What is the Probability Both are Red? There are three blue balls and two red balls in a box. When we randomly pick two balls out of the box without replacement, what is the probability that both of the balls are red? Solution. Let $R_1$ be the event that the first ball is red and $R_2$ be the event that the […]

You may also like...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

More in Probability
Probability problems
Probability Problems about Two Dice

Two fair and distinguishable six-sided dice are rolled. (1) What is the probability that the sum of the upturned faces...

Close