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Diagonalization Problems and Solutions in Linear Algebra


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  • Is the Set of Nilpotent Element an Ideal?Is the Set of Nilpotent Element an Ideal? Is it true that a set of nilpotent elements in a ring $R$ is an ideal of $R$? If so, prove it. Otherwise give a counterexample.   Proof. We give a counterexample. Let $R$ be the noncommutative ring of $2\times 2$ matrices with real […]
  • Algebraic Number is an Eigenvalue of Matrix with Rational EntriesAlgebraic Number is an Eigenvalue of Matrix with Rational Entries A complex number $z$ is called algebraic number (respectively, algebraic integer) if $z$ is a root of a monic polynomial with rational (respectively, integer) coefficients. Prove that $z \in \C$ is an algebraic number (resp. algebraic integer) if and only if $z$ is an eigenvalue of […]
  • Possibilities For the Number of Solutions for a Linear SystemPossibilities For the Number of Solutions for a Linear System Determine whether the following systems of equations (or matrix equations) described below has no solution, one unique solution or infinitely many solutions and justify your answer. (a) \[\left\{ \begin{array}{c} ax+by=c \\ dx+ey=f, \end{array} \right. \] where $a,b,c, d$ […]
  • Linear Transformation $T(X)=AX-XA$ and Determinant of Matrix RepresentationLinear Transformation $T(X)=AX-XA$ and Determinant of Matrix Representation Let $V$ be the vector space of all $n\times n$ real matrices. Let us fix a matrix $A\in V$. Define a map $T: V\to V$ by \[ T(X)=AX-XA\] for each $X\in V$. (a) Prove that $T:V\to V$ is a linear transformation. (b) Let $B$ be a basis of $V$. Let $P$ be the matrix […]
  • Condition that Two Matrices are Row EquivalentCondition that Two Matrices are Row Equivalent We say that two $m\times n$ matrices are row equivalent if one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of elementary row operations. Let $A$ and $I$ be $2\times 2$ matrices defined as follows. \[A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & b\\ c& d \end{bmatrix}, \qquad […]
  • If Two Matrices are Similar, then their Determinants are the SameIf Two Matrices are Similar, then their Determinants are the Same Prove that if $A$ and $B$ are similar matrices, then their determinants are the same.   Proof. Suppose that $A$ and $B$ are similar. Then there exists a nonsingular matrix $S$ such that \[S^{-1}AS=B\] by definition. Then we […]
  • The Quadratic Integer Ring $\Z[\sqrt{5}]$ is not a Unique Factorization Domain (UFD)The Quadratic Integer Ring $\Z[\sqrt{5}]$ is not a Unique Factorization Domain (UFD) Prove that the quadratic integer ring $\Z[\sqrt{5}]$ is not a Unique Factorization Domain (UFD).   Proof. Every element of the ring $\Z[\sqrt{5}]$ can be written as $a+b\sqrt{5}$ for some integers $a, b$. The (field) norm $N$ of an element $a+b\sqrt{5}$ is […]
  • Examples of Prime Ideals in Commutative Rings that are Not Maximal IdealsExamples of Prime Ideals in Commutative Rings that are Not Maximal Ideals Give an example of a commutative ring $R$ and a prime ideal $I$ of $R$ that is not a maximal ideal of $R$.   Solution. We give several examples. The key facts are: An ideal $I$ of $R$ is prime if and only if $R/I$ is an integral domain. An ideal $I$ of […]

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