Find the Distance Between Two Vectors if the Lengths and the Dot Product are Given
Let $\mathbf{a}$ and $\mathbf{b}$ be vectors in $\R^n$ such that their length are
\[\|\mathbf{a}\|=\|\mathbf{b}\|=1\]
and the inner product
\[\mathbf{a}\cdot \mathbf{b}=\mathbf{a}^{\trans}\mathbf{b}=-\frac{1}{2}.\]
Then determine the length $\|\mathbf{a}-\mathbf{b}\|$.
(Note […]

Are these vectors in the Nullspace of the Matrix?
Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & 3 & -2 \\
0 &3 & 1 & 1 \\
1 & 3 & 4 & -1
\end{bmatrix}$. For each of the following vectors, determine whether the vector is in the nullspace $\calN(A)$.
(a) $\begin{bmatrix}
-3 \\
0 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}$
[…]

Linear Independent Continuous Functions
Let $C[3, 10]$ be the vector space consisting of all continuous functions defined on the interval $[3, 10]$. Consider the set
\[S=\{ \sqrt{x}, x^2 \}\]
in $C[3,10]$.
Show that the set $S$ is linearly independent in $C[3,10]$.
Proof.
Note that the zero vector […]

The Inverse Matrix of the Transpose is the Transpose of the Inverse Matrix
Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ invertible matrix. Then prove the transpose $A^{\trans}$ is also invertible and that the inverse matrix of the transpose $A^{\trans}$ is the transpose of the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$.
Namely, show […]

Find the Rank of a Matrix with a Parameter
Find the rank of the following real matrix.
\[ \begin{bmatrix}
a & 1 & 2 \\
1 &1 &1 \\
-1 & 1 & 1-a
\end{bmatrix},\]
where $a$ is a real number.
(Kyoto University, Linear Algebra Exam)
Solution.
The rank is the number of nonzero rows of a […]

Find the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of the Matrix $A^4-3A^3+3A^2-2A+8E$.
Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & -1\\
2& 3
\end{bmatrix}.\]
Find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the matrix
\[B=A^4-3A^3+3A^2-2A+8E.\]
(Nagoya University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)
Hint.
Apply the Cayley-Hamilton theorem.
That is if $p_A(t)$ is the […]