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Problems and Solutions of Eigenvalue, Eigenvector in Linear Algebra


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  • The Rank of the Sum of Two MatricesThe Rank of the Sum of Two Matrices Let $A$ and $B$ be $m\times n$ matrices. Prove that \[\rk(A+B) \leq \rk(A)+\rk(B).\] Proof. Let \[A=[\mathbf{a}_1, \dots, \mathbf{a}_n] \text{ and } B=[\mathbf{b}_1, \dots, \mathbf{b}_n],\] where $\mathbf{a}_i$ and $\mathbf{b}_i$ are column vectors of $A$ and $B$, […]
  • A Rational Root of a Monic Polynomial with Integer Coefficients is an IntegerA Rational Root of a Monic Polynomial with Integer Coefficients is an Integer Suppose that $\alpha$ is a rational root of a monic polynomial $f(x)$ in $\Z[x]$. Prove that $\alpha$ is an integer.   Proof. Suppose that $\alpha=\frac{p}{q}$ is a rational number in lowest terms, that is, $p$ and $q$ are relatively prime […]
  • Quiz 8. Determine Subsets are Subspaces: Functions Taking Integer Values / Set of Skew-Symmetric MatricesQuiz 8. Determine Subsets are Subspaces: Functions Taking Integer Values / Set of Skew-Symmetric Matrices (a) Let $C[-1,1]$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all real-valued continuous functions defined on the interval $[-1, 1]$. Consider the subset $F$ of $C[-1, 1]$ defined by \[F=\{ f(x)\in C[-1, 1] \mid f(0) \text{ is an integer}\}.\] Prove or disprove that $F$ is a subspace of […]
  • Ascending Chain of Submodules and Union of its SubmodulesAscending Chain of Submodules and Union of its Submodules Let $R$ be a ring with $1$. Let $M$ be an $R$-module. Consider an ascending chain \[N_1 \subset N_2 \subset \cdots\] of submodules of $M$. Prove that the union \[\cup_{i=1}^{\infty} N_i\] is a submodule of $M$.   Proof. To simplify the notation, let us […]
  • Centralizer, Normalizer, and Center of the Dihedral Group $D_{8}$Centralizer, Normalizer, and Center of the Dihedral Group $D_{8}$ Let $D_8$ be the dihedral group of order $8$. Using the generators and relations, we have \[D_{8}=\langle r,s \mid r^4=s^2=1, sr=r^{-1}s\rangle.\] (a) Let $A$ be the subgroup of $D_8$ generated by $r$, that is, $A=\{1,r,r^2,r^3\}$. Prove that the centralizer […]
  • Non-Example of a Subspace in 3-dimensional Vector Space $\R^3$Non-Example of a Subspace in 3-dimensional Vector Space $\R^3$ Let $S$ be the following subset of the 3-dimensional vector space $\R^3$. \[S=\left\{ \mathbf{x}\in \R^3 \quad \middle| \quad \mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ x_3 \end{bmatrix}, x_1, x_2, x_3 \in \Z \right\}, \] where $\Z$ is the set of all integers. […]
  • A Matrix Similar to a Diagonalizable Matrix is Also DiagonalizableA Matrix Similar to a Diagonalizable Matrix is Also Diagonalizable Let $A, B$ be matrices. Show that if $A$ is diagonalizable and if $B$ is similar to $A$, then $B$ is diagonalizable.   Definitions/Hint. Recall the relevant definitions. Two matrices $A$ and $B$ are similar if there exists a nonsingular (invertible) matrix $S$ such […]
  • 7 Problems on Skew-Symmetric Matrices7 Problems on Skew-Symmetric Matrices Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ skew-symmetric matrices. Namely $A^{\trans}=-A$ and $B^{\trans}=-B$. (a) Prove that $A+B$ is skew-symmetric. (b) Prove that $cA$ is skew-symmetric for any scalar $c$. (c) Let $P$ be an $m\times n$ matrix. Prove that $P^{\trans}AP$ is […]

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