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  • Condition that Two Matrices are Row EquivalentCondition that Two Matrices are Row Equivalent We say that two $m\times n$ matrices are row equivalent if one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of elementary row operations. Let $A$ and $I$ be $2\times 2$ matrices defined as follows. \[A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & b\\ c& d \end{bmatrix}, \qquad […]
  • The Polynomial $x^p-2$ is Irreducible Over the Cyclotomic Field of $p$-th Root of UnityThe Polynomial $x^p-2$ is Irreducible Over the Cyclotomic Field of $p$-th Root of Unity Prove that the polynomial $x^p-2$ for a prime number $p$ is irreducible over the field $\Q(\zeta_p)$, where $\zeta_p$ is a primitive $p$th root of unity.   Hint. Consider the field extension $\Q(\sqrt[p]{2}, \zeta)$, where $\zeta$ is a primitive $p$-th root of […]
  • Prove a Given Subset is a Subspace  and Find a Basis and DimensionProve a Given Subset is a Subspace and Find a Basis and Dimension Let \[A=\begin{bmatrix} 4 & 1\\ 3& 2 \end{bmatrix}\] and consider the following subset $V$ of the 2-dimensional vector space $\R^2$. \[V=\{\mathbf{x}\in \R^2 \mid A\mathbf{x}=5\mathbf{x}\}.\] (a) Prove that the subset $V$ is a subspace of $\R^2$. (b) Find a basis for […]
  • Basis of Span in Vector Space of Polynomials of Degree 2 or LessBasis of Span in Vector Space of Polynomials of Degree 2 or Less Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $2$ or less with real coefficients. Let \[S=\{1+x+2x^2, \quad x+2x^2, \quad -1, \quad x^2\}\] be the set of four vectors in $P_2$. Then find a basis of the subspace $\Span(S)$ among the vectors in $S$. (Linear […]
  • Determine the Dimension of a Mysterious Vector Space From Coordinate VectorsDetermine the Dimension of a Mysterious Vector Space From Coordinate Vectors Let $V$ be a vector space and $B$ be a basis for $V$. Let $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5$ be vectors in $V$. Suppose that $A$ is the matrix whose columns are the coordinate vectors of $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, […]
  • Eigenvalues of a Hermitian Matrix are Real NumbersEigenvalues of a Hermitian Matrix are Real Numbers Show that eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix $A$ are real numbers. (The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)   We give two proofs. These two proofs are essentially the same. The second proof is a bit simpler and concise compared to the first one. […]
  • Group of Invertible Matrices Over a Finite Field and its StabilizerGroup of Invertible Matrices Over a Finite Field and its Stabilizer Let $\F_p$ be the finite field of $p$ elements, where $p$ is a prime number. Let $G_n=\GL_n(\F_p)$ be the group of $n\times n$ invertible matrices with entries in the field $\F_p$. As usual in linear algebra, we may regard the elements of $G_n$ as linear transformations on $\F_p^n$, […]
  • Find All the Eigenvalues of Power of Matrix and Inverse MatrixFind All the Eigenvalues of Power of Matrix and Inverse Matrix Let \[A=\begin{bmatrix} 3 & -12 & 4 \\ -1 &0 &-2 \\ -1 & 5 & -1 \end{bmatrix}.\] Then find all eigenvalues of $A^5$. If $A$ is invertible, then find all the eigenvalues of $A^{-1}$.   Proof. We first determine all the eigenvalues of the matrix […]

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