Positive definite Real Symmetric Matrix and its Eigenvalues
A real symmetric $n \times n$ matrix $A$ is called positive definite if
\[\mathbf{x}^{\trans}A\mathbf{x}>0\]
for all nonzero vectors $\mathbf{x}$ in $\R^n$.
(a) Prove that the eigenvalues of a real symmetric positive-definite matrix $A$ are all positive.
(b) Prove that if […]

Prove a Group is Abelian if $(ab)^3=a^3b^3$ and No Elements of Order $3$
Let $G$ be a group. Suppose that we have
\[(ab)^3=a^3b^3\]
for any elements $a, b$ in $G$. Also suppose that $G$ has no elements of order $3$.
Then prove that $G$ is an abelian group.
Proof.
Let $a, b$ be arbitrary elements of the group $G$. We want […]

Find the Vector Form Solution to the Matrix Equation $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$
Find the vector form solution $\mathbf{x}$ of the equation $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$, where $A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 & 1 & 1 &2 \\
1 & 2 & 4 & 0 & 5 \\
3 & 2 & 0 & 5 & 2 \\
\end{bmatrix}$. Also, find two linearly independent vectors $\mathbf{x}$ satisfying […]

Linearly Dependent Module Elements / Module Homomorphism and Linearly Independency
(a) Let $R$ be a commutative ring. If we regard $R$ as a left $R$-module, then prove that any two distinct elements of the module $R$ are linearly dependent.
(b) Let $f: M\to M'$ be a left $R$-module homomorphism. Let $\{x_1, \dots, x_n\}$ be a subset in $M$. Prove that if the set […]

If a Power of a Matrix is the Identity, then the Matrix is Diagonalizable
Let $A$ be an $n \times n$ complex matrix such that $A^k=I$, where $I$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix.
Show that the matrix $A$ is diagonalizable.
Hint.
Use the fact that if the minimal polynomial for the matrix $A$ has distinct roots, then $A$ is […]

The Formula for the Inverse Matrix of $I+A$ for a $2\times 2$ Singular Matrix $A$
Let $A$ be a singular $2\times 2$ matrix such that $\tr(A)\neq -1$ and let $I$ be the $2\times 2$ identity matrix.
Then prove that the inverse matrix of the matrix $I+A$ is given by the following formula:
\[(I+A)^{-1}=I-\frac{1}{1+\tr(A)}A.\]
Using the formula, calculate […]

Is a Set of All Nilpotent Matrix a Vector Space?
Let $V$ denote the vector space of all real $n\times n$ matrices, where $n$ is a positive integer.
Determine whether the set $U$ of all $n\times n$ nilpotent matrices is a subspace of the vector space $V$ or not.
Definition.
An matrix $A$ is a nilpotent matrix if […]

Find the Formula for the Power of a Matrix Using Linear Recurrence Relation
Suppose that $A$ is $2\times 2$ matrix that has eigenvalues $-1$ and $3$.
Then for each positive integer $n$ find $a_n$ and $b_n$ such that
\[A^{n+1}=a_nA+b_nI,\]
where $I$ is the $2\times 2$ identity matrix.
Solution.
Since $-1, 3$ are eigenvalues of the […]