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  • Prove Vector Space Properties Using Vector Space AxiomsProve Vector Space Properties Using Vector Space Axioms Using the axiom of a vector space, prove the following properties. Let $V$ be a vector space over $\R$. Let $u, v, w\in V$. (a) If $u+v=u+w$, then $v=w$. (b) If $v+u=w+u$, then $v=w$. (c) The zero vector $\mathbf{0}$ is unique. (d) For each $v\in V$, the additive inverse […]
  • The Product of a Subgroup and a Normal Subgroup is a SubgroupThe Product of a Subgroup and a Normal Subgroup is a Subgroup Let $G$ be a group. Let $H$ be a subgroup of $G$ and let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $G$. The product of $H$ and $N$ is defined to be the subset \[H\cdot N=\{hn\in G\mid h \in H, n\in N\}.\] Prove that the product $H\cdot N$ is a subgroup of […]
  • If the Sum of Entries in Each Row of a Matrix is Zero, then the Matrix is SingularIf the Sum of Entries in Each Row of a Matrix is Zero, then the Matrix is Singular Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix. Suppose that the sum of elements in each row of $A$ is zero. Then prove that the matrix $A$ is singular.   Definition. An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is said to be singular if there exists a nonzero vector $\mathbf{v}$ such that […]
  • Image of a Normal Subgroup Under a Surjective Homomorphism is a Normal SubgroupImage of a Normal Subgroup Under a Surjective Homomorphism is a Normal Subgroup Let $f: H \to G$ be a surjective group homomorphism from a group $H$ to a group $G$. Let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $H$. Show that the image $f(N)$ is normal in $G$.   Proof. To show that $f(N)$ is normal, we show that $gf(N)g^{-1}=f(N)$ for any $g \in […]
  • Determine Trigonometric Functions with Given ConditionsDetermine Trigonometric Functions with Given Conditions (a) Find a function \[g(\theta) = a \cos(\theta) + b \cos(2 \theta) + c \cos(3 \theta)\] such that $g(0) = g(\pi/2) = g(\pi) = 0$, where $a, b, c$ are constants. (b) Find real numbers $a, b, c$ such that the function \[g(\theta) = a \cos(\theta) + b \cos(2 \theta) + c \cos(3 […]
  • A Matrix is Invertible If and Only If It is NonsingularA Matrix is Invertible If and Only If It is Nonsingular In this problem, we will show that the concept of non-singularity of a matrix is equivalent to the concept of invertibility. That is, we will prove that: A matrix $A$ is nonsingular if and only if $A$ is invertible. (a) Show that if $A$ is invertible, then $A$ is […]
  • Cyclic Group if and only if There Exists a Surjective Group Homomorphism From $\Z$Cyclic Group if and only if There Exists a Surjective Group Homomorphism From $\Z$ Show that a group $G$ is cyclic if and only if there exists a surjective group homomorphism from the additive group $\Z$ of integers to the group $G$.   Proof. $(\implies)$: If $G$ is cyclic, then there exists a surjective homomorhpism from $\Z$ Suppose that $G$ is […]
  • The Sum of Cosine Squared in an Inner Product SpaceThe Sum of Cosine Squared in an Inner Product Space Let $\mathbf{v}$ be a vector in an inner product space $V$ over $\R$. Suppose that $\{\mathbf{u}_1, \dots, \mathbf{u}_n\}$ is an orthonormal basis of $V$. Let $\theta_i$ be the angle between $\mathbf{v}$ and $\mathbf{u}_i$ for $i=1,\dots, n$. Prove that \[\cos […]

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