Because $A$ has rank $n$, we know that the $n \times n$ matrix $\rref(A)$ has $n$ non-zero rows.
This means that all $n$ rows must have a leading 1.

Each leading 1 must be in a distinct column, so we must have that each of the $n$ columns has a leading 1.
In a row echelon matrix, these leading 1s must be arranged to lie on the diagonal.

In a reduced row echelon matrix, each column with a leading 1 has 0s above and below that 1.

These restrictions mean that $\rref(A)$ must be the identity matrix.

Find Values of $a$ so that the Matrix is Nonsingular
Let $A$ be the following $3 \times 3$ matrix.
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 & -1 \\
0 &1 &2 \\
1 & 1 & a
\end{bmatrix}.\]
Determine the values of $a$ so that the matrix $A$ is nonsingular.
Solution.
We use the fact that a matrix is nonsingular if and only if […]

Find a Row-Equivalent Matrix which is in Reduced Row Echelon Form and Determine the Rank
For each of the following matrices, find a row-equivalent matrix which is in reduced row echelon form. Then determine the rank of each matrix.
(a) $A = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 3 \\ -2 & 2 \end{bmatrix}$.
(b) $B = \begin{bmatrix} 2 & 6 & -2 \\ 3 & -2 & 8 \end{bmatrix}$.
(c) $C […]

Find All 3 by 3 Reduced Row Echelon Form Matrices of Rank 1 and 2
(a) Find all $3 \times 3$ matrices which are in reduced row echelon form and have rank 1.
(b) Find all such matrices with rank 2.
Solution.
(a) Find all $3 \times 3$ matrices which are in reduced row echelon form and have rank 1.
First we look at the rank 1 case. […]

If Two Matrices Have the Same Rank, Are They Row-Equivalent?
If $A, B$ have the same rank, can we conclude that they are row-equivalent?
If so, then prove it. If not, then provide a counterexample.
Solution.
Having the same rank does not mean they are row-equivalent.
For a simple counterexample, consider $A = […]

Nilpotent Matrices and Non-Singularity of Such Matrices
Let $A$ be an $n \times n$ nilpotent matrix, that is, $A^m=O$ for some positive integer $m$, where $O$ is the $n \times n$ zero matrix.
Prove that $A$ is a singular matrix and also prove that $I-A, I+A$ are both nonsingular matrices, where $I$ is the $n\times n$ identity […]

Subspaces of Symmetric, Skew-Symmetric Matrices
Let $V$ be the vector space over $\R$ consisting of all $n\times n$ real matrices for some fixed integer $n$. Prove or disprove that the following subsets of $V$ are subspaces of $V$.
(a) The set $S$ consisting of all $n\times n$ symmetric matrices.
(b) The set $T$ consisting of […]