# If the Quotient is an Infinite Cyclic Group, then Exists a Normal Subgroup of Index $n$

## Problem 557

Let $N$ be a normal subgroup of a group $G$.
Suppose that $G/N$ is an infinite cyclic group.

Then prove that for each positive integer $n$, there exists a normal subgroup $H$ of $G$ of index $n$.

## Hint.

Use the fourth (or Lattice) isomorphism theorem.

## Proof.

Let $n$ be a positive integer.
Since $G/N$ is a cyclic group, let $g$ be a generator of $G/N$.
So we have $G/N=\langle g\rangle$.
Then $\langle g^n \rangle$ is a subgroup of $G/N$ of index $n$.

By the fourth isomorphism theorem, every subgroup of $G/N$ is of the form $H/N$ for some subgroup $H$ of $G$ containing $N$.
Thus we have $\langle g^n \rangle=H/N$ for some subgroup $H$ in $G$ containing $N$.

Since $G/N$ is cyclic, it is in particular abelian.
Thus $H/N$ is a normal subgroup of $G/N$.

The fourth isomorphism theorem also implies that $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$, and we have
\begin{align*}
[G:H]=[G/N : H/N]=n.
\end{align*}
Hence $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$ of index $n$.

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