A Group Homomorphism and an Abelian Group
Let $G$ be a group. Define a map $f:G \to G$ by sending each element $g \in G$ to its inverse $g^{-1} \in G$.
Show that $G$ is an abelian group if and only if the map $f: G\to G$ is a group homomorphism.
Proof.
$(\implies)$ If $G$ is an abelian group, then $f$ […]

Linear Properties of Matrix Multiplication and the Null Space of a Matrix
Let $A$ be an $m \times n$ matrix.
Let $\calN(A)$ be the null space of $A$. Suppose that $\mathbf{u} \in \calN(A)$ and $\mathbf{v} \in \calN(A)$.
Let $\mathbf{w}=3\mathbf{u}-5\mathbf{v}$.
Then find $A\mathbf{w}$.
Hint.
Recall that the null space of an […]

Subspace of Skew-Symmetric Matrices and Its Dimension
Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices. Let $W$ be a subset of $V$ consisting of all $2\times 2$ skew-symmetric matrices. (Recall that a matrix $A$ is skew-symmetric if $A^{\trans}=-A$.)
(a) Prove that the subset $W$ is a subspace of $V$.
(b) Find the […]

How to Obtain Information of a Vector if Information of Other Vectors are Given
Let $A$ be a $3\times 3$ matrix and let
\[\mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{w}=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
-1 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}.\]
Suppose that $A\mathbf{v}=-\mathbf{v}$ and $A\mathbf{w}=2\mathbf{w}$.
Then find […]

The Matrix Representation of the Linear Transformation $T (f) (x) = ( x^2 – 2) f(x)$
Let $\mathrm{P}_n$ be the vector space of polynomials of degree at most $n$. The set $B = \{ 1 , x , x^2 , \cdots , x^n \}$ is a basis of $\mathrm{P}_n$, called the standard basis.
Let $T : \mathrm{P}_3 \rightarrow \mathrm{P}_{5}$ be the map defined by, for $f \in […]

Equivalent Conditions to be a Unitary Matrix
A complex matrix is called unitary if $\overline{A}^{\trans} A=I$.
The inner product $(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y})$ of complex vector $\mathbf{x}$, $\mathbf{y}$ is defined by $(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}):=\overline{\mathbf{x}}^{\trans} \mathbf{y}$. The length of a complex vector […]

Nilpotent Element a in a Ring and Unit Element $1-ab$
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1 \neq 0$.
An element $a\in R$ is called nilpotent if $a^n=0$ for some positive integer $n$.
Then prove that if $a$ is a nilpotent element of $R$, then $1-ab$ is a unit for all $b \in R$.
We give two proofs.
Proof 1.
Since $a$ […]

Diagonalize the $2\times 2$ Hermitian Matrix by a Unitary Matrix
Consider the Hermitian matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & i\\
-i& 1
\end{bmatrix}.\]
(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.
(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, find the eigenvectors.
(c) Diagonalize the Hermitian matrix $A$ by a unitary matrix. Namely, find a diagonal matrix […]