# The mathematical properties of 2017

• Mathematics About the Number 2018 Happy New Year 2018!! Here are several mathematical facts about the number 2018.   Is 2018 a Prime Number? The number 2018 is an even number, so in particular 2018 is not a prime number. The prime factorization of 2018 is $2018=2\cdot 1009.$ Here $2$ and $1009$ are […]
• Independent Events of Playing Cards A card is chosen randomly from a deck of the standard 52 playing cards. Let $E$ be the event that the selected card is a king and let $F$ be the event that it is a heart. Prove or disprove that the events $E$ and $F$ are independent. Definition of Independence Events […]
• Compute the Product $A^{2017}\mathbf{u}$ of a Matrix Power and a Vector Let $A=\begin{bmatrix} -1 & 2 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix} 1\\ 0 \end{bmatrix}.$ Compute $A^{2017}\mathbf{u}$.   (The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam) Solution. We first compute $A\mathbf{u}$. We […]
• Companion Matrix for a Polynomial Consider a polynomial $p(x)=x^n+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_1x+a_0,$ where $a_i$ are real numbers. Define the matrix \[A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & \dots & 0 &-a_0 \\ 1 & 0 & \dots & 0 & -a_1 \\ 0 & 1 & \dots & 0 & -a_2 \\ \vdots & […]
• Nilpotent Matrix and Eigenvalues of the Matrix An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is called nilpotent if $A^k=O$, where $O$ is the $n\times n$ zero matrix. Prove the followings. (a) The matrix $A$ is nilpotent if and only if all the eigenvalues of $A$ is zero. (b) The matrix $A$ is nilpotent if and only if […]
• Powers of a Diagonal Matrix Let $A=\begin{bmatrix} a & 0\\ 0& b \end{bmatrix}$. Show that (1) $A^n=\begin{bmatrix} a^n & 0\\ 0& b^n \end{bmatrix}$ for any $n \in \N$. (2) Let $B=S^{-1}AS$, where $S$ be an invertible $2 \times 2$ matrix. Show that $B^n=S^{-1}A^n S$ for any \$n \in […]