## Problem 550

Consider the $2\times 2$ matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} \cos \theta & -\sin \theta\\ \sin \theta& \cos \theta \end{bmatrix},$ where $\theta$ is a real number $0\leq \theta < 2\pi$.

(a) Find the characteristic polynomial of the matrix $A$.

(b) Find the eigenvalues of the matrix $A$.

(c) Determine the eigenvectors corresponding to each of the eigenvalues of $A$.

## Problem 549

By calculating the Wronskian, determine whether the set of exponential functions
$\{e^x, e^{2x}, e^{3x}\}$ is linearly independent on the interval $[-1, 1]$.

## Problem 548

An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is said to be invertible if there exists an $n\times n$ matrix $B$ such that

1. $AB=I$, and
2. $BA=I$,

where $I$ is the $n\times n$ identity matrix.

If such a matrix $B$ exists, then it is known to be unique and called the inverse matrix of $A$, denoted by $A^{-1}$.

In this problem, we prove that if $B$ satisfies the first condition, then it automatically satisfies the second condition.
So if we know $AB=I$, then we can conclude that $B=A^{-1}$.

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices.
Suppose that we have $AB=I$, where $I$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix.

Prove that $BA=I$, and hence $A^{-1}=B$.

## Problem 547

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ nonsingular matrix with integer entries.

Prove that the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$ contains only integer entries if and only if $\det(A)=\pm 1$.

## Problem 546

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix.

The $(i, j)$ cofactor $C_{ij}$ of $A$ is defined to be
$C_{ij}=(-1)^{ij}\det(M_{ij}),$ where $M_{ij}$ is the $(i,j)$ minor matrix obtained from $A$ removing the $i$-th row and $j$-th column.

Then consider the $n\times n$ matrix $C=(C_{ij})$, and define the $n\times n$ matrix $\Adj(A)=C^{\trans}$.
The matrix $\Adj(A)$ is called the adjoint matrix of $A$.

When $A$ is invertible, then its inverse can be obtained by the formula

$A^{-1}=\frac{1}{\det(A)}\Adj(A).$

For each of the following matrices, determine whether it is invertible, and if so, then find the invertible matrix using the above formula.

(a) $A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 5 & 2 \\ 0 &-1 &2 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}$.

(b) $B=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 2 \\ 0 &1 &4 \\ 3 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}$.

## Problem 545

Let $V$ be a vector space over the field of real numbers $\R$.

Prove that if the dimension of $V$ is $n$, then $V$ is isomorphic to $\R^n$.

## Problem 544

Let $G$ a finite group and let $H$ and $K$ be two distinct Sylow $p$-group, where $p$ is a prime number dividing the order $|G|$ of $G$.

Prove that the product $HK$ can never be a subgroup of the group $G$.

## Problem 543

Let $R$ be a ring with $1$.
Suppose that $a, b$ are elements in $R$ such that
$ab=1 \text{ and } ba\neq 1.$

(a) Prove that $1-ba$ is idempotent.

(b) Prove that $b^n(1-ba)$ is nilpotent for each positive integer $n$.

(c) Prove that the ring $R$ has infinitely many nilpotent elements.

## Problem 542

Let $R$ be a ring with $1\neq 0$. Let $a, b\in R$ such that $ab=1$.

(a) Prove that if $a$ is not a zero divisor, then $ba=1$.

(b) Prove that if $b$ is not a zero divisor, then $ba=1$.

## Problem 541

Let $U$ and $V$ be finite dimensional vector spaces over a scalar field $\F$.
Consider a linear transformation $T:U\to V$.

Prove that if $\dim(U) > \dim(V)$, then $T$ cannot be injective (one-to-one).

## Problem 540

Let $U$ and $V$ be vector spaces over a scalar field $\F$.
Let $T: U \to V$ be a linear transformation.

Prove that $T$ is injective (one-to-one) if and only if the nullity of $T$ is zero.

## Problem 539

Consider the $2\times 2$ real matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1\\ 1& 3 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Prove that the matrix $A$ is positive definite.

(b) Since $A$ is positive definite by part (a), the formula
$\langle \mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}\rangle:=\mathbf{x}^{\trans} A \mathbf{y}$ for $\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y} \in \R^2$ defines an inner product on $\R^n$.
Consider $\R^2$ as an inner product space with this inner product.

Prove that the unit vectors
$\mathbf{e}_1=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{e}_2=\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}$ are not orthogonal in the inner product space $\R^2$.

(c) Find an orthogonal basis $\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$ of $\R^2$ from the basis $\{\mathbf{e}_1, \mathbf{e}_2\}$ using the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process.

## Problem 538

(a) Suppose that $A$ is an $n\times n$ real symmetric positive definite matrix.
Prove that
$\langle \mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}\rangle:=\mathbf{x}^{\trans}A\mathbf{y}$ defines an inner product on the vector space $\R^n$.

(b) Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ real matrix. Suppose that
$\langle \mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}\rangle:=\mathbf{x}^{\trans}A\mathbf{y}$ defines an inner product on the vector space $\R^n$.

Prove that $A$ is symmetric and positive definite.

## Problem 537

Let $A$ and $B$ be $2\times 2$ matrices such that $(AB)^2=O$, where $O$ is the $2\times 2$ zero matrix.

Determine whether $(BA)^2$ must be $O$ as well. If so, prove it. If not, give a counter example.

## Problem 536

Let $R$ and $S$ be rings with $1\neq 0$.

Prove that every ideal of the direct product $R\times S$ is of the form $I\times J$, where $I$ is an ideal of $R$, and $J$ is an ideal of $S$.

## Problem 535

(a) Prove that every prime ideal of a Principal Ideal Domain (PID) is a maximal ideal.

(b) Prove that a quotient ring of a PID by a prime ideal is a PID.

## Problem 534

Let $I$ be a nonzero ideal of the ring of Gaussian integers $\Z[i]$.

Prove that the quotient ring $\Z[i]/I$ is finite.

## Problem 533

Consider the complex matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} \sqrt{2}\cos x & i \sin x & 0 \\ i \sin x &0 &-i \sin x \\ 0 & -i \sin x & -\sqrt{2} \cos x \end{bmatrix},$ where $x$ is a real number between $0$ and $2\pi$.

Determine for which values of $x$ the matrix $A$ is diagonalizable.
When $A$ is diagonalizable, find a diagonal matrix $D$ so that $P^{-1}AP=D$ for some nonsingular matrix $P$.

## Problem 532

Let $R$ and $S$ be rings. Suppose that $f: R \to S$ is a surjective ring homomorphism.

Prove that every image of an ideal of $R$ under $f$ is an ideal of $S$.
Namely, prove that if $I$ is an ideal of $R$, then $J=f(I)$ is an ideal of $S$.

## Problem 531

(a) Let $F$ be a field. Show that $F$ does not have a nonzero zero divisor.

(b) Let $R$ and $S$ be nonzero rings with identities.
Prove that the direct product $R\times S$ cannot be a field.