Prove that the polynomial
\[f(x)=x^3+9x+6\]
is irreducible over the field of rational numbers $\Q$.
Let $\theta$ be a root of $f(x)$.
Then find the inverse of $1+\theta$ in the field $\Q(\theta)$.

Let $G=\GL(n, \R)$ be the general linear group of degree $n$, that is, the group of all $n\times n$ invertible matrices.
Consider the subset of $G$ defined by
\[\SL(n, \R)=\{X\in \GL(n,\R) \mid \det(X)=1\}.\]
Prove that $\SL(n, \R)$ is a subgroup of $G$. Furthermore, prove that $\SL(n,\R)$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.
The subgroup $\SL(n,\R)$ is called special linear group

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $n\times n$ real matrices.
Let us fix a matrix $A\in V$.
Define a map $T: V\to V$ by
\[ T(X)=AX-XA\]
for each $X\in V$.

(a) Prove that $T:V\to V$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Let $B$ be a basis of $V$. Let $P$ be the matrix representation of $T$ with respect to $B$. Find the determinant of $P$.

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Let $T:\R^n \to \R$ be a non-zero linear transformation.
Prove the followings.

(a) The nullity of $T$ is $n-1$. That is, the dimension of the nullspace of $T$ is $n-1$.

(b) Let $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \cdots, \mathbf{v}_{n-1}\}$ be a basis of the nullspace $\calN(T)$ of $T$.
Let $\mathbf{w}$ be the $n$-dimensional vector that is not in $\calN(T)$. Then
\[B’=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \cdots, \mathbf{v}_{n-1}, \mathbf{w}\}\]
is a basis of $\R^n$.

(c) Each vector $\mathbf{u}\in \R^n$ can be expressed as
\[\mathbf{u}=\mathbf{v}+\frac{T(\mathbf{u})}{T(\mathbf{w})}\mathbf{w}\]
for some vector $\mathbf{v}\in \calN(T)$.

(a) Let $C[-1,1]$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all real-valued continuous functions defined on the interval $[-1, 1]$.
Consider the subset $F$ of $C[-1, 1]$ defined by
\[F=\{ f(x)\in C[-1, 1] \mid f(0) \text{ is an integer}\}.\]
Prove or disprove that $F$ is a subspace of $C[-1, 1]$.

(b) Let $n$ be a positive integer.
An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is called skew-symmetric if $A^{\trans}=-A$.
Let $M_{n\times n}$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all $n\times n$ real matrices.
Consider the subset $W$ of $M_{n\times n}$ defined by
\[W=\{A\in M_{n\times n} \mid A \text{ is skew-symmetric}\}.\]
Prove or disprove that $W$ is a subspace of $M_{n\times n}$.

Let $A$ be the matrix for a linear transformation $T:\R^n \to \R^n$ with respect to the standard basis of $\R^n$.
We assume that $A$ is idempotent, that is, $A^2=A$.
Then prove that
\[\R^n=\im(T) \oplus \ker(T).\]

Let $G$ be a group and define a map $f:G\to G$ by $f(a)=a^2$ for each $a\in G$.
Then prove that $G$ is an abelian group if and only if the map $f$ is a group homomorphism.

Let $T$ be the linear transformation from the $3$-dimensional vector space $\R^3$ to $\R^3$ itself satisfying the following relations.
\begin{align*}
T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix} \,\right)
=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \qquad T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix} \, \right) =
\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
2 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix}, \qquad
T \left( \, \begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \, \right)=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}
Then for any vector
\[\mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y \\
z
\end{bmatrix}\in \R^3,\]
find the formula for $T(\mathbf{x})$.

Suppose that $A$ is $2\times 2$ matrix that has eigenvalues $-1$ and $3$.
Then for each positive integer $n$ find $a_n$ and $b_n$ such that
\[A^{n+1}=a_nA+b_nI,\]
where $I$ is the $2\times 2$ identity matrix.

Let $V$ be a real vector space of all real sequences
\[(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}=(a_1, a_2, \dots).\]
Let $U$ be a subspace of $V$ defined by
\[U=\{(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}\in V \mid a_{n+2}=2a_{n+1}+3a_{n} \text{ for } n=1, 2,\dots \}.\]
Let $T$ be the linear transformation from $U$ to $U$ defined by
\[T\big((a_1, a_2, \dots)\big)=(a_2, a_3, \dots). \]

(a) Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the linear transformation $T$.

(b) Use the result of (a), find a sequence $(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}$ satisfying $a_1=2, a_2=7$.

(a) Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 3 & 0 & 0 \\
1 &3 & 1 & 2 \\
1 & 3 & 1 & 2
\end{bmatrix}$.
Find a basis for the range $\calR(A)$ of $A$ that consists of columns of $A$.

(b) Find the rank and nullity of the matrix $A$ in part (a).

(a) Is it true that $A$ must commute with its transpose?

(b) Suppose that the columns of $A$ (considered as vectors) form an orthonormal set.
Is it true that the rows of $A$ must also form an orthonormal set?

(University of California, Berkeley, Linear Algebra Qualifying Exam)

Let $n$ be an odd positive integer.
Determine whether there exists an $n \times n$ real matrix $A$ such that
\[A^2+I=O,\]
where $I$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix and $O$ is the $n \times n$ zero matrix.

If such a matrix $A$ exists, find an example. If not, prove that there is no such $A$.

Let $P_1$ be the vector space of all real polynomials of degree $1$ or less. Consider the linear transformation $T: P_1 \to P_1$ defined by
\[T(ax+b)=(3a+b)x+a+3,\]
for any $ax+b\in P_1$.

(a) With respect to the basis $B=\{1, x\}$, find the matrix of the linear transformation $T$.

(b) Find a basis $B’$ of the vector space $P_1$ such that the matrix of $T$ with respect to $B’$ is a diagonal matrix.

(c) Express $f(x)=5x+3$ as a linear combination of basis vectors of $B’$.