Give a Formula For a Linear Transformation From $\R^2$ to $\R^3$

Problem 339

Let $\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$ be a basis of the vector space $\R^2$, where
\[\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix}.\] The action of a linear transformation $T:\R^2\to \R^3$ on the basis $\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$ is given by
\begin{align*}
T(\mathbf{v}_1)=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
4 \\
6
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } T(\mathbf{v}_2)=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
8 \\
10
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}

Find the formula of $T(\mathbf{x})$, where
\[\mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y
\end{bmatrix}\in \R^2.\]

 
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12 Examples of Subsets that Are Not Subspaces of Vector Spaces

Problem 338

Each of the following sets are not a subspace of the specified vector space. For each set, give a reason why it is not a subspace.
(1) \[S_1=\left \{\, \begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2 \\
x_3
\end{bmatrix} \in \R^3 \quad \middle | \quad x_1\geq 0 \,\right \}\] in the vector space $\R^3$.


(2) \[S_2=\left \{\, \begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2 \\
x_3
\end{bmatrix} \in \R^3 \quad \middle | \quad x_1-4x_2+5x_3=2 \,\right \}\] in the vector space $\R^3$.


(3) \[S_3=\left \{\, \begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y
\end{bmatrix}\in \R^2 \quad \middle | \quad y=x^2 \quad \,\right \}\] in the vector space $\R^2$.


(4) Let $P_4$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $4$ or less with real coefficients.
\[S_4=\{ f(x)\in P_4 \mid f(1) \text{ is an integer}\}\] in the vector space $P_4$.


(5) \[S_5=\{ f(x)\in P_4 \mid f(1) \text{ is a rational number}\}\] in the vector space $P_4$.


(6) Let $M_{2 \times 2}$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ real matrices.
\[S_6=\{ A\in M_{2\times 2} \mid \det(A) \neq 0\} \] in the vector space $M_{2\times 2}$.


(7) \[S_7=\{ A\in M_{2\times 2} \mid \det(A)=0\} \] in the vector space $M_{2\times 2}$.

(Linear Algebra Exam Problem, the Ohio State University)


(8) Let $C[-1, 1]$ be the vector space of all real continuous functions defined on the interval $[a, b]$.
\[S_8=\{ f(x)\in C[-2,2] \mid f(-1)f(1)=0\} \] in the vector space $C[-2, 2]$.


(9) \[S_9=\{ f(x) \in C[-1, 1] \mid f(x)\geq 0 \text{ for all } -1\leq x \leq 1\}\] in the vector space $C[-1, 1]$.


(10) Let $C^2[a, b]$ be the vector space of all real-valued functions $f(x)$ defined on $[a, b]$, where $f(x), f'(x)$, and $f^{\prime\prime}(x)$ are continuous on $[a, b]$. Here $f'(x), f^{\prime\prime}(x)$ are the first and second derivative of $f(x)$.
\[S_{10}=\{ f(x) \in C^2[-1, 1] \mid f^{\prime\prime}(x)+f(x)=\sin(x) \text{ for all } -1\leq x \leq 1\}\] in the vector space $C[-1, 1]$.


(11) Let $S_{11}$ be the set of real polynomials of degree exactly $k$, where $k \geq 1$ is an integer, in the vector space $P_k$.


(12) Let $V$ be a vector space and $W \subset V$ a vector subspace. Define the subset $S_{12}$ to be the complement of $W$,
\[ V \setminus W = \{ \mathbf{v} \in V \mid \mathbf{v} \not\in W \}.\]

 
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Normal Nilpotent Matrix is Zero Matrix

Problem 336

A complex square ($n\times n$) matrix $A$ is called normal if
\[A^* A=A A^*,\] where $A^*$ denotes the conjugate transpose of $A$, that is $A^*=\bar{A}^{\trans}$.
A matrix $A$ is said to be nilpotent if there exists a positive integer $k$ such that $A^k$ is the zero matrix.

(a) Prove that if $A$ is both normal and nilpotent, then $A$ is the zero matrix.
You may use the fact that every normal matrix is diagonalizable.

(b) Give a proof of (a) without referring to eigenvalues and diagonalization.

(c) Let $A, B$ be $n\times n$ complex matrices. Prove that if $A$ is normal and $B$ is nilpotent such that $A+B=I$, then $A=I$, where $I$ is the $n\times n$ identity matrix.

 
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Special Linear Group is a Normal Subgroup of General Linear Group

Problem 332

Let $G=\GL(n, \R)$ be the general linear group of degree $n$, that is, the group of all $n\times n$ invertible matrices.
Consider the subset of $G$ defined by
\[\SL(n, \R)=\{X\in \GL(n,\R) \mid \det(X)=1\}.\] Prove that $\SL(n, \R)$ is a subgroup of $G$. Furthermore, prove that $\SL(n,\R)$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.
The subgroup $\SL(n,\R)$ is called special linear group

 
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Beautiful Formulas for pi=3.14…

The number $\pi$ is defined a s the ratio of a circle’s circumference $C$ to its diameter $d$:
\[\pi=\frac{C}{d}.\]

$\pi$ in decimal starts with 3.14… and never end.

I will show you several beautiful formulas for $\pi$.

 
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Linear Transformation $T(X)=AX-XA$ and Determinant of Matrix Representation

Problem 330

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $n\times n$ real matrices.
Let us fix a matrix $A\in V$.
Define a map $T: V\to V$ by
\[ T(X)=AX-XA\] for each $X\in V$.

(a) Prove that $T:V\to V$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Let $B$ be a basis of $V$. Let $P$ be the matrix representation of $T$ with respect to $B$. Find the determinant of $P$.

 
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Linear Transformation to 1-Dimensional Vector Space and Its Kernel

Problem 329

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Let $T:\R^n \to \R$ be a non-zero linear transformation.
Prove the followings.

(a) The nullity of $T$ is $n-1$. That is, the dimension of the nullspace of $T$ is $n-1$.

(b) Let $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \cdots, \mathbf{v}_{n-1}\}$ be a basis of the nullspace $\calN(T)$ of $T$.
Let $\mathbf{w}$ be the $n$-dimensional vector that is not in $\calN(T)$. Then
\[B’=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \cdots, \mathbf{v}_{n-1}, \mathbf{w}\}\] is a basis of $\R^n$.

(c) Each vector $\mathbf{u}\in \R^n$ can be expressed as
\[\mathbf{u}=\mathbf{v}+\frac{T(\mathbf{u})}{T(\mathbf{w})}\mathbf{w}\] for some vector $\mathbf{v}\in \calN(T)$.

 
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Quiz 8. Determine Subsets are Subspaces: Functions Taking Integer Values / Set of Skew-Symmetric Matrices

Problem 328

(a) Let $C[-1,1]$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all real-valued continuous functions defined on the interval $[-1, 1]$.
Consider the subset $F$ of $C[-1, 1]$ defined by
\[F=\{ f(x)\in C[-1, 1] \mid f(0) \text{ is an integer}\}.\] Prove or disprove that $F$ is a subspace of $C[-1, 1]$.

(b) Let $n$ be a positive integer.
An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is called skew-symmetric if $A^{\trans}=-A$.
Let $M_{n\times n}$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all $n\times n$ real matrices.
Consider the subset $W$ of $M_{n\times n}$ defined by
\[W=\{A\in M_{n\times n} \mid A \text{ is skew-symmetric}\}.\] Prove or disprove that $W$ is a subspace of $M_{n\times n}$.

 
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Determine linear transformation using matrix representation

Problem 324

Let $T$ be the linear transformation from the $3$-dimensional vector space $\R^3$ to $\R^3$ itself satisfying the following relations.
\begin{align*}
T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix} \,\right)
=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \qquad T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix} \, \right) =
\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
2 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix}, \qquad
T \left( \, \begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \, \right)=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}
Then for any vector
\[\mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y \\
z
\end{bmatrix}\in \R^3,\] find the formula for $T(\mathbf{x})$.

 
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