(a) Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 3 & 0 & 0 \\
1 &3 & 1 & 2 \\
1 & 3 & 1 & 2
\end{bmatrix}$.
Find a basis for the range $\calR(A)$ of $A$ that consists of columns of $A$.

(b) Find the rank and nullity of the matrix $A$ in part (a).

(a) Is it true that $A$ must commute with its transpose?

(b) Suppose that the columns of $A$ (considered as vectors) form an orthonormal set.
Is it true that the rows of $A$ must also form an orthonormal set?

(University of California, Berkeley, Linear Algebra Qualifying Exam)

Let $n$ be an odd positive integer.
Determine whether there exists an $n \times n$ real matrix $A$ such that
\[A^2+I=O,\]
where $I$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix and $O$ is the $n \times n$ zero matrix.

If such a matrix $A$ exists, find an example. If not, prove that there is no such $A$.

Let $P_1$ be the vector space of all real polynomials of degree $1$ or less. Consider the linear transformation $T: P_1 \to P_1$ defined by
\[T(ax+b)=(3a+b)x+a+3,\]
for any $ax+b\in P_1$.

(a) With respect to the basis $B=\{1, x\}$, find the matrix of the linear transformation $T$.

(b) Find a basis $B’$ of the vector space $P_1$ such that the matrix of $T$ with respect to $B’$ is a diagonal matrix.

(c) Express $f(x)=5x+3$ as a linear combination of basis vectors of $B’$.

Let $T$ be the linear transformation from the vector space $\R^2$ to $\R^2$ itself given by
\[T\left( \begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2
\end{bmatrix} \right)= \begin{bmatrix}
3x_1+x_2 \\
x_1+3x_2
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Verify that the vectors
\[\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}\]
are eigenvectors of the linear transformation $T$, and conclude that $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$ is a basis of $\R^2$ consisting of eigenvectors.

(b) Find the matrix of $T$ with respect to the basis $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$.

(a) Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2 & 1 \\
3 &6 &4
\end{bmatrix}$ and let
\[\mathbf{a}=\begin{bmatrix}
-3 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \qquad \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix}
-2 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \qquad \mathbf{c}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.\]
For each of the vectors $\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{b}, \mathbf{c}$, determine whether the vector is in the null space $\calN(A)$. Do the same for the range $\calR(A)$.

(b) Find a basis of the null space of the matrix $B=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 & 2 \\
-2 &-2 &-4
\end{bmatrix}$.

Let
\[\mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
a \\
b \\
c
\end{bmatrix}, \qquad \mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \qquad \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
-1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}.\]
Find the necessary and sufficient condition so that the vector $\mathbf{v}$ is a linear combination of the vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2$.

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices. Then prove that
\[\calN(A)\cap \calN(B) \subset \calN(A+B),\]
where $\calN(A)$ is the null space (kernel) of the matrix $A$.

Let $V$ be a real vector space of all real sequences
\[(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}=(a_1, a_2, \dots).\]
Let $U$ be the subspace of $V$ consisting of all real sequences that satisfy the linear recurrence relation
\[a_{k+2}-5a_{k+1}+3a_{k}=0\]
for $k=1, 2, \dots$.
Let $T$ be the linear transformation from $U$ to $U$ defined by
\[T\big((a_1, a_2, \dots)\big)=(a_2, a_3, \dots). \]

Let $B=\{\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2\}$ be a basis of $U$, where
\begin{align*}
\mathbf{u}_1&=(1, 0, -3, -15, -66, \dots)\\
\mathbf{u}_2&=(0, 1, 5, 22, 95, \dots).
\end{align*}
Let $A$ be the matrix representation of the linear transformation $T: U \to U$ with respect to the basis $B$.

(a) Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of $T$.

(b) Use the result of (a), find a sequence $(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}$ satisfying the linear recurrence relation $a_{k+2}-5a_{k+1}+3a_{k}=0$ and the initial condition $a_1=1, a_2=1$.

(c) Find the formula for the sequences $(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}$ satisfying the linear recurrence relation $a_{k+2}-5a_{k+1}+3a_{k}=0$ and express it using $a_1, a_2$.

Let $V$ be a real vector space of all real sequences
\[(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}=(a_1, a_2, \dots).\]
Let $U$ be the subspace of $V$ consisting of all real sequences that satisfy the linear recurrence relation $a_{k+2}-5a_{k+1}+3a_{k}=0$ for $k=1, 2, \dots$.

(a) Let
\begin{align*}
\mathbf{u}_1&=(1, 0, -3, -15, -66, \dots)\\
\mathbf{u}_2&=(0, 1, 5, 22, 95, \dots)
\end{align*}
be vectors in $U$. Prove that $\{\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2\}$ is a basis of $U$ and conclude that the dimension of $U$ is $2$.

(b) Let $T$ be a map from $U$ to $U$ defined by
\[T\big((a_1, a_2, \dots)\big)=(a_2, a_3, \dots). \]
Verify that the map $T$ actually sends a vector $(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}\in V$ to a vector $T\big((a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}\big)$ in $U$, and show that $T$ is a linear transformation from $U$ to $U$.

(c) With respect to the basis $\{\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2\}$ obtained in (a), find the matrix representation $A$ of the linear transformation $T:U \to U$ from (b).

Let $V$ be a real vector space of all real sequences
\[(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}=(a_1, a_2, \cdots).\]
Let $U$ be the subset of $V$ defined by
\[U=\{ (a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty} \in V \mid a_{k+2}-5a_{k+1}+3a_{k}=0, k=1, 2, \dots \}.\]

Let $A$ be an abelian group and let $T(A)$ denote the set of elements of $A$ that have finite order.

(a) Prove that $T(A)$ is a subgroup of $A$.

(The subgroup $T(A)$ is called the torsion subgroup of the abelian group $A$ and elements of $T(A)$ are called torsion elements.)

(b) Prove that the quotient group $G=A/T(A)$ is a torsion-free abelian group. That is, the only element of $G$ that has finite order is the identity element.

Let $G$ be a group with identity element $e$.
Suppose that for any non identity elements $a, b, c$ of $G$ we have
\[abc=cba. \tag{*}\]
Then prove that $G$ is an abelian group.

Problem 1 Let $W$ be the subset of the $3$-dimensional vector space $\R^3$ defined by
\[W=\left\{ \mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2 \\
x_3
\end{bmatrix}\in \R^3 \quad \middle| \quad 2x_1x_2=x_3 \right\}.\]

(a) Which of the following vectors are in the subset $W$? Choose all vectors that belong to $W$.
\[(1) \begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix} \qquad(2) \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \qquad(3)\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix} \qquad(4) \begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix} \qquad(5) \begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2 & 4 \\
1 &2 &4
\end{bmatrix} \qquad(6) \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1 \\
-2
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(b) Determine whether $W$ is a subspace of $\R^3$ or not.

Problem 2 Let $W$ be the subset of $\R^3$ defined by
\[W=\left\{ \mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2 \\
x_3
\end{bmatrix} \in \R^3 \quad \middle| \quad x_1=3x_2 \text{ and } x_3=0 \right\}.\]
Determine whether the subset $W$ is a subspace of $\R^3$ or not.

Let $A$ be a real $7\times 3$ matrix such that its null space is spanned by the vectors
\[\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \text{ and } \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}.\]
Then find the rank of the matrix $A$.

(Purdue University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$ and let $G$ be a finite group with identity element $e$. Let $RG$ be the group ring. Then the map $\epsilon: RG \to R$ defined by
\[\epsilon(\sum_{i=1}^na_i g_i)=\sum_{i=1}^na_i,\]
where $a_i\in R$ and $G=\{g_i\}_{i=1}^n$, is a ring homomorphism, called the augmentation map and the kernel of $\epsilon$ is called the augmentation ideal.

(a) Prove that the augmentation ideal in the group ring $RG$ is generated by $\{g-e \mid g\in G\}$.

(b) Prove that if $G=\langle g\rangle$ is a finite cyclic group generated by $g$, then the augmentation ideal is generated by $g-e$.