## Problem 249

Suppose that the following matrix $A$ is the augmented matrix for a system of linear equations.
$A= \left[\begin{array}{rrr|r} 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 \\ 2 &-1 & -2 & a^2 \\ -1 & -7 & -11 & a \end{array} \right],$ where $a$ is a real number. Determine all the values of $a$ so that the corresponding system is consistent.

## Problem 248

We say that two $m\times n$ matrices are row equivalent if one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of elementary row operations.

Let $A$ and $I$ be $2\times 2$ matrices defined as follows.
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & b\\ c& d \end{bmatrix}, \qquad I=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0\\ 0& 1 \end{bmatrix}.$ Prove that the matrix $A$ is row equivalent to the matrix $I$ if $d-cb \neq 0$.

## Problem 247

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with unity. A proper ideal $I$ of $R$ is called primary if whenever $ab \in I$ for $a, b\in R$, then either $a\in I$ or $b^n\in I$ for some positive integer $n$.

(a) Prove that a prime ideal $P$ of $R$ is primary.

(b) If $P$ is a prime ideal and $a^n\in P$ for some $a\in R$ and a positive integer $n$, then show that $a\in P$.

(c) If $P$ is a prime ideal, prove that $\sqrt{P}=P$.

(d) If $Q$ is a primary ideal, prove that the radical ideal $\sqrt{Q}$ is a prime ideal.

## Problem 246

Let $H$ be a subgroup of a group $G$. We call $H$ characteristic in $G$ if for any automorphism $\sigma\in \Aut(G)$ of $G$, we have $\sigma(H)=H$.

(a) Prove that if $\sigma(H) \subset H$ for all $\sigma \in \Aut(G)$, then $H$ is characteristic in $G$.

(b) Prove that the center $Z(G)$ of $G$ is characteristic in $G$.

## Problem 245

Let $p, q$ be prime numbers such that $p>q$.
If a group $G$ has order $pq$, then show the followings.

(a) The group $G$ has a normal Sylow $p$-subgroup.

(b) The group $G$ is solvable.

## Problem 244

Let $G_1, G_1$, and $H$ be groups. Let $f_1: G_1 \to H$ and $f_2: G_2 \to H$ be group homomorphisms.
Define the subset $M$ of $G_1 \times G_2$ to be
$M=\{(a_1, a_2) \in G_1\times G_2 \mid f_1(a_1)=f_2(a_2)\}.$

Prove that $M$ is a subgroup of $G_1 \times G_2$.

## Problem 243

Let $f:G\to G’$ be a group homomorphism. We say that $f$ is monic whenever we have $fg_1=fg_2$, where $g_1:K\to G$ and $g_2:K \to G$ are group homomorphisms for some group $K$, we have $g_1=g_2$.

Then prove that a group homomorphism $f: G \to G’$ is injective if and only if it is monic.

## Problem 242

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 &3 &2 \\ -1 & -3 & -4 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } B=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 &3 &2 \\ 5 & 3 & 3 \end{bmatrix}.$

Determine the null spaces of matrices $A$ and $B$.

## Problem 240

A nontrivial abelian group $A$ is called divisible if for each element $a\in A$ and each nonzero integer $k$, there is an element $x \in A$ such that $x^k=a$.
(Here the group operation of $A$ is written multiplicatively. In additive notation, the equation is written as $kx=a$.) That is, $A$ is divisible if each element has a $k$-th root in $A$.

(a) Prove that the additive group of rational numbers $\Q$ is divisible.

(b) Prove that no finite abelian group is divisible.

## Problem 239

Let $R$ be an integral domain. Then prove that the ideal $(x^3-y^2)$ is a prime ideal in the ring $R[x, y]$.

## Mathematics About the Number 2017

Happy New Year 2017!!

Here is the list of mathematical facts about the number 2017 that you can brag about to your friends or family as a math geek.

## Problem 237

Let $A$ be an $n \times n$ matrix. Suppose that all the eigenvalues $\lambda$ of $A$ are real and satisfy $\lambda <1$.

Then show that the determinant $\det(I-A) >0,$ where $I$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix.

## Problem 236

Let $V$ denote the vector space of all real $n\times n$ matrices, where $n$ is a positive integer.

Determine whether the set $U$ of all $n\times n$ nilpotent matrices is a subspace of the vector space $V$ or not.

## Problem 235

Suppose that a real symmetric matrix $A$ has two distinct eigenvalues $\alpha$ and $\beta$.
Show that any eigenvector corresponding to $\alpha$ is orthogonal to any eigenvector corresponding to $\beta$.

(Nagoya University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

## Problem 234

Show that the polynomial
$f(x)=x^4-2x-1$ is irreducible over the field of rational numbers $\Q$.

## Problem 233

(a) Let $f_1(x)$ and $f_2(x)$ be irreducible polynomials over a finite field $\F_p$, where $p$ is a prime number. Suppose that $f_1(x)$ and $f_2(x)$ have the same degrees. Then show that fields $\F_p[x]/(f_1(x))$ and $\F_p[x]/(f_2(x))$ are isomorphic.

(b) Show that the polynomials $x^3-x+1$ and $x^3-x-1$ are both irreducible polynomials over the finite field $\F_3$.

(c) Exhibit an explicit isomorphism between the splitting fields of $x^3-x+1$ and $x^3-x-1$ over $\F_3$.

## Problem 232

Let $G$ be a group and let $H$ be a subgroup of finite index. Then show that there exists a normal subgroup $N$ of $G$ such that $N$ is of finite index in $G$ and $N\subset H$.

## Problem 231

Show that $\Q(\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}})$ is a cyclic quartic field, that is, it is a Galois extension of degree $4$ with cyclic Galois group.

## Problem 230

Let $\Q$ be the field of rational numbers.

(a) Is the polynomial $f(x)=x^2-2$ separable over $\Q$?

(b) Find the Galois group of $f(x)$ over $\Q$.

## Problem 229

Let $p\in \Z$ be a prime number and let $\F_p$ be the field of $p$ elements.
For any nonzero element $a\in \F_p$, prove that the polynomial
$f(x)=x^p-x+a$ is irreducible and separable over $F_p$.

(Dummit and Foote “Abstract Algebra” Section 13.5 Exercise #5 on p.551)