Ideal Quotient (Colon Ideal) is an Ideal

Problem 203

Let $R$ be a commutative ring. Let $S$ be a subset of $R$ and let $I$ be an ideal of $I$.
We define the subset
\[(I:S):=\{ a \in R \mid aS\subset I\}.\] Prove that $(I:S)$ is an ideal of $R$. This ideal is called the ideal quotient, or colon ideal.

 
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Maximize the Dimension of the Null Space of $A-aI$

Problem 200

Let
\[ A=\begin{bmatrix}
5 & 2 & -1 \\
2 &2 &2 \\
-1 & 2 & 5
\end{bmatrix}.\]

Pick your favorite number $a$. Find the dimension of the null space of the matrix $A-aI$, where $I$ is the $3\times 3$ identity matrix.

Your score of this problem is equal to that dimension times five.

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Practice Problem)
 
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The Ideal $(x)$ is Prime in the Polynomial Ring $R[x]$ if and only if the Ring $R$ is an Integral Domain

Problem 198

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$. Prove that the principal ideal $(x)$ generated by the element $x$ in the polynomial ring $R[x]$ is a prime ideal if and only if $R$ is an integral domain.

Prove also that the ideal $(x)$ is a maximal ideal if and only if $R$ is a field.

 
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Find Values of $h$ so that the Given Vectors are Linearly Independent

Problem 194

Find the value(s) of $h$ for which the following set of vectors
\[\left \{ \mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
h \\
1 \\
-h
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2h \\
3h+1
\end{bmatrix}\right\}\] is linearly independent.

(Boston College, Linear Algebra Midterm Exam Sample Problem)
 
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Compute Determinant of a Matrix Using Linearly Independent Vectors

Problem 193

Let $A$ be a $3 \times 3$ matrix.
Let $\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}, \mathbf{z}$ are linearly independent $3$-dimensional vectors. Suppose that we have
\[A\mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, A\mathbf{y}=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, A\mathbf{z}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.\]

Then find the value of the determinant of the matrix $A$.

 
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Given All Eigenvalues and Eigenspaces, Compute a Matrix Product

Problem 189

Let $C$ be a $4 \times 4$ matrix with all eigenvalues $\lambda=2, -1$ and eigensapces
\[E_2=\Span\left \{\quad \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix} \quad\right \} \text{ and } E_{-1}=\Span\left \{ \quad\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix},\quad \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \quad\right\}.\]

Calculate $C^4 \mathbf{u}$ for $\mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix}
6 \\
8 \\
6 \\
9
\end{bmatrix}$ if possible. Explain why if it is not possible!

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)
 
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