Algebraic Number is an Eigenvalue of Matrix with Rational Entries

Problem 88

A complex number $z$ is called algebraic number (respectively, algebraic integer) if $z$ is a root of a monic polynomial with rational (respectively, integer) coefficients.

Prove that $z \in \C$ is an algebraic number (resp. algebraic integer) if and only if $z$ is an eigenvalue of a matrix with rational (resp. integer) entries.
 
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Companion Matrix for a Polynomial

Problem 85

Consider a polynomial
\[p(x)=x^n+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_1x+a_0,\] where $a_i$ are real numbers.
Define the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 0 & \dots & 0 &-a_0 \\
1 & 0 & \dots & 0 & -a_1 \\
0 & 1 & \dots & 0 & -a_2 \\
\vdots & & \ddots & & \vdots \\
0 & 0 & \dots & 1 & -a_{n-1}
\end{bmatrix}.\]

Then prove that the characteristic polynomial $\det(xI-A)$ of $A$ is the polynomial $p(x)$.
The matrix is called the companion matrix of the polynomial $p(x)$.

 

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Isomorphism of the Endomorphism and the Tensor Product of a Vector Space

Problem 80

Let $V$ be a finite dimensional vector space over a field $K$ and let $\End (V)$ be the vector space of linear transformations from $V$ to $V$.
Let $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \dots, \mathbf{v}_n$ be a basis for $V$.
Show that the map $\phi:\End (V) \to V^{\oplus n}$ defined by $f\mapsto (f(\mathbf{v}_1), \dots, f(\mathbf{v}_n))$ is an isomorphism.
Here $V^{\oplus n}=V\oplus \dots \oplus V$, the direct sum of $n$ copies of $V$.
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The Vector Space Consisting of All Traceless Diagonal Matrices

Problem 79

Let $V$ be the set of all $n \times n$ diagonal matrices whose traces are zero.
That is,

\begin{equation*}
V:=\left\{ A=\begin{bmatrix}
a_{11} & 0 & \dots & 0 \\
0 &a_{22} & \dots & 0 \\
0 & 0 & \ddots & \vdots \\
0 & 0 & \dots & a_{nn}
\end{bmatrix} \quad \middle| \quad
\begin{array}{l}
a_{11}, \dots, a_{nn} \in \C,\\
\tr(A)=0 \\
\end{array}
\right\}
\end{equation*}

Let $E_{ij}$ denote the $n \times n$ matrix whose $(i,j)$-entry is $1$ and zero elsewhere.

(a) Show that $V$ is a subspace of the vector space $M_n$ over $\C$ of all $n\times n$ matrices. (You may assume without a proof that $M_n$ is a vector space.)

(b) Show that matrices
\[E_{11}-E_{22}, \, E_{22}-E_{33}, \, \dots,\, E_{n-1\, n-1}-E_{nn}\] are a basis for the vector space $V$.

(c) Find the dimension of $V$.
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True or False Quiz About a System of Linear Equations

Problem 78

Determine whether the following sentence is True or False.

(Purdue University Linear Algebra Exam)

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Is the Product of a Nilpotent Matrix and an Invertible Matrix Nilpotent?

Problem 77

A square matrix $A$ is called nilpotent if there exists a positive integer $k$ such that $A^k=O$, where $O$ is the zero matrix.

(a) If $A$ is a nilpotent $n \times n$ matrix and $B$ is an $n\times n$ matrix such that $AB=BA$. Show that the product $AB$ is nilpotent.

(b) Let $P$ be an invertible $n \times n$ matrix and let $N$ be a nilpotent $n\times n$ matrix. Is the product $PN$ nilpotent? If so, prove it. If not, give a counterexample.

 

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