The Vector Space Consisting of All Traceless Diagonal Matrices

Problem 79

Let $V$ be the set of all $n \times n$ diagonal matrices whose traces are zero.
That is,

\begin{equation*}
V:=\left\{ A=\begin{bmatrix}
a_{11} & 0 & \dots & 0 \\
0 &a_{22} & \dots & 0 \\
0 & 0 & \ddots & \vdots \\
0 & 0 & \dots & a_{nn}
\end{bmatrix} \quad \middle| \quad
\begin{array}{l}
a_{11}, \dots, a_{nn} \in \C,\\
\tr(A)=0 \\
\end{array}
\right\}
\end{equation*}

Let $E_{ij}$ denote the $n \times n$ matrix whose $(i,j)$-entry is $1$ and zero elsewhere.

(a) Show that $V$ is a subspace of the vector space $M_n$ over $\C$ of all $n\times n$ matrices. (You may assume without a proof that $M_n$ is a vector space.)

(b) Show that matrices
\[E_{11}-E_{22}, \, E_{22}-E_{33}, \, \dots,\, E_{n-1\, n-1}-E_{nn}\] are a basis for the vector space $V$.

(c) Find the dimension of $V$.
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True or False Quiz About a System of Linear Equations

Problem 78

Determine whether the following sentence is True or False.

(Purdue University Linear Algebra Exam)

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Is the Product of a Nilpotent Matrix and an Invertible Matrix Nilpotent?

Problem 77

A square matrix $A$ is called nilpotent if there exists a positive integer $k$ such that $A^k=O$, where $O$ is the zero matrix.

(a) If $A$ is a nilpotent $n \times n$ matrix and $B$ is an $n\times n$ matrix such that $AB=BA$. Show that the product $AB$ is nilpotent.

(b) Let $P$ be an invertible $n \times n$ matrix and let $N$ be a nilpotent $n\times n$ matrix. Is the product $PN$ nilpotent? If so, prove it. If not, give a counterexample.

 

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A Linear Transformation from Vector Space over Rational Numbers to itself

Problem 75

Let $\Q$ denote the set of rational numbers (i.e., fractions of integers). Let $V$ denote the set of the form $x+y \sqrt{2}$ where $x,y \in \Q$. You may take for granted that the set $V$ is a vector space over the field $\Q$.

(a) Show that $B=\{1, \sqrt{2}\}$ is a basis for the vector space $V$ over $\Q$.

(b) Let $\alpha=a+b\sqrt{2} \in V$, and let $T_{\alpha}: V \to V$ be the map defined by
\[ T_{\alpha}(x+y\sqrt{2}):=(ax+2by)+(ay+bx)\sqrt{2}\in V\] for any $x+y\sqrt{2} \in V$.
Show that $T_{\alpha}$ is a linear transformation.

(c) Let $\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y
\end{bmatrix}_B=x+y \sqrt{2}$.
Find the matrix $T_B$ such that
\[ T_{\alpha} (x+y \sqrt{2})=\left( T_B\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y
\end{bmatrix}\right)_B,\] and compute $\det T_B$.

 

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

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Conditions on Coefficients that a Matrix is Nonsingular

Problem 72

(a) Let $A=(a_{ij})$ be an $n\times n$ matrix. Suppose that the entries of the matrix $A$ satisfy the following relation.
\[|a_{ii}|>|a_{i1}|+\cdots +|a_{i\,i-1}|+|a_{i \, i+1}|+\cdots +|a_{in}|\] for all $1 \leq i \leq n$.
Show that the matrix $A$ is nonsingular.

(b) Let $B=(b_{ij})$ be an $n \times n$ matrix whose entries satisfy the relation
\[ |b_{i\,i}|=1 \hspace{0.5cm} \text{ and }\hspace{0.5cm} |b_{ij}|<\frac{1}{n-1}\] for all $i$ and $j$ with $i \neq j$.
Prove that the matrix $B$ is nonsingular.

(c)
Determine whether the following matrix is nonsingular or not.
\[C=\begin{bmatrix}
\pi & e & e^2/2\pi^2 \\[5 pt] e^2/2\pi^2 &\pi &e \\[5pt] e & e^2/2\pi^2 & \pi
\end{bmatrix},\] where $\pi=3.14159\dots$, and $e=2.71828\dots$ is Euler’s number (or Napier’s constant).

 

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Matrix Representations for Linear Transformations of the Vector Space of Polynomials

Problem 71

Let $P_2(\R)$ be the vector space over $\R$ consisting of all polynomials with real coefficients of degree $2$ or less.
Let $B=\{1,x,x^2\}$ be a basis of the vector space $P_2(\R)$.
For each linear transformation $T:P_2(\R) \to P_2(\R)$ defined below, find the matrix representation of $T$ with respect to the basis $B$. For $f(x)\in P_2(\R)$, define $T$ as follows.

(a) \[T(f(x))=\frac{\mathrm{d}^2}{\mathrm{d}x^2} f(x)-3\frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x}f(x)\]

(b) \[T(f(x))=\int_{-1}^1\! (t-x)^2f(t) \,\mathrm{d}t\]

(c) \[T(f(x))=e^x \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x}(e^{-x}f(x))\]

 

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Is an Eigenvector of a Matrix an Eigenvector of its Inverse?

Problem 70

Suppose that $A$ is an $n \times n$ matrix with eigenvalue $\lambda$ and corresponding eigenvector $\mathbf{v}$.

(a) If $A$ is invertible, is $\mathbf{v}$ an eigenvector of $A^{-1}$? If so, what is the corresponding eigenvalue? If not, explain why not.

(b) Is $3\mathbf{v}$ an eigenvector of $A$? If so, what is the corresponding eigenvalue? If not, explain why not.

 

(Stanford University, Linear Algebra Exam)

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Matrices Satisfying $HF-FH=-2F$

Problem 69

Let $F$ and $H$ be an $n\times n$ matrices satisfying the relation
\[HF-FH=-2F.\]

(a) Find the trace of the matrix $F$.

(b) Let $\lambda$ be an eigenvalue of $H$ and let $\mathbf{v}$ be an eigenvector corresponding to $\lambda$. Show that there exists an positive integer $N$ such that $F^N\mathbf{v}=\mathbf{0}$.

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Matrices Satisfying the Relation $HE-EH=2E$

Problem 68

Let $H$ and $E$ be $n \times n$ matrices satisfying the relation
\[HE-EH=2E.\] Let $\lambda$ be an eigenvalue of the matrix $H$ such that the real part of $\lambda$ is the largest among the eigenvalues of $H$.
Let $\mathbf{x}$ be an eigenvector corresponding to $\lambda$. Then prove that
\[E\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}.\]

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True or False: Eigenvalues of a Real Matrix Are Real Numbers

Problem 67

Answer the following questions regarding eigenvalues of a real matrix.

(a) True or False. If each entry of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ is a real number, then the eigenvalues of $A$ are all real numbers.
(b) Find the eigenvalues of the matrix
\[B=\begin{bmatrix}
-2 & -1\\
5& 2
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

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Linear Independent Vectors, Invertible Matrix, and Expression of a Vector as a Linear Combinations

Problem 66

Consider the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2 & 1 \\
2 &5 &4 \\
1 & 1 & 0
\end{bmatrix}.\]


(a) Calculate the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$. If you think the matrix $A$ is not invertible, then explain why.


(b) Are the vectors
\[ \mathbf{A}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{A}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
5 \\
1
\end{bmatrix},
\text{ and } \mathbf{A}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
4 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}\] linearly independent?


(c) Write the vector $\mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}$ as a linear combination of $\mathbf{A}_1$, $\mathbf{A}_2$, and $\mathbf{A}_3$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

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Solving a System of Linear Equations By Using an Inverse Matrix

Problem 65

Consider the system of linear equations
\begin{align*}
x_1&= 2, \\
-2x_1 + x_2 &= 3, \\
5x_1-4x_2 +x_3 &= 2
\end{align*}

(a) Find the coefficient matrix and its inverse matrix.

(b) Using the inverse matrix, solve the system of linear equations.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

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If the Images of Vectors are Linearly Independent, then They Are Linearly Independent

Problem 62

Let $T: \R^n \to \R^m$ be a linear transformation.
Suppose that $S=\{\mathbf{x}_1, \mathbf{x}_2,\dots, \mathbf{x}_k\}$ is a subset of $\R^n$ such that $\{T(\mathbf{x}_1), T(\mathbf{x}_2), \dots, T(\mathbf{x}_k) \}$ is a linearly independent subset of $\R^m$.

Prove that the set $S$ is linearly independent.

 

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Two Subspaces Intersecting Trivially, and the Direct Sum of Vector Spaces.

Problem 61

Let $V$ and $W$ be subspaces of $\R^n$ such that $V \cap W =\{\mathbf{0}\}$ and $\dim(V)+\dim(W)=n$.

(a) If $\mathbf{v}+\mathbf{w}=\mathbf{0}$, where $\mathbf{v}\in V$ and $\mathbf{w}\in W$, then show that $\mathbf{v}=\mathbf{0}$ and $\mathbf{w}=\mathbf{0}$.

(b) If $B_1$ is a basis for the subspace $V$ and $B_2$ is a basis for the subspace $W$, then show that the union $B_1\cup B_2$ is a basis for $R^n$.

(c) If $\mathbf{x}$ is in $\R^n$, then show that $\mathbf{x}$ can be written in the form $\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{v}+\mathbf{w}$, where $\mathbf{v}\in V$ and $\mathbf{w} \in W$.

(d) Show that the representation obtained in part (c) is unique.

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Projection to the subspace spanned by a vector

Problem 60

Let $T: \R^3 \to \R^3$ be the linear transformation given by orthogonal projection to the line spanned by $\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}$.

(a) Find a formula for $T(\mathbf{x})$ for $\mathbf{x}\in \R^3$.

(b) Find a basis for the image subspace of $T$.

(c) Find a basis for the kernel subspace of $T$.

(d) Find the $3 \times 3$ matrix for $T$ with respect to the standard basis for $\R^3$.

(e) Find a basis for the orthogonal complement of the kernel of $T$. (The orthogonal complement is the subspace of all vectors perpendicular to a given subspace, in this case, the kernel.)

(f) Find a basis for the orthogonal complement of the image of $T$.

(g) What is the rank of $T$?

(Johns Hopkins University Exam)

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