## Problem 78

Determine whether the following sentence is True or False.

(Purdue University Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 77

A square matrix $A$ is called nilpotent if there exists a positive integer $k$ such that $A^k=O$, where $O$ is the zero matrix.

(a) If $A$ is a nilpotent $n \times n$ matrix and $B$ is an $n\times n$ matrix such that $AB=BA$. Show that the product $AB$ is nilpotent.

(b) Let $P$ be an invertible $n \times n$ matrix and let $N$ be a nilpotent $n\times n$ matrix. Is the product $PN$ nilpotent? If so, prove it. If not, give a counterexample.

## Problem 76

Let A be the matrix
$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & -1 & 0 \\ 0 &1 &-1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}.$ Is the matrix $A$ invertible? If not, then explain why it isn’t invertible. If so, then find the inverse.

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 75

Let $\Q$ denote the set of rational numbers (i.e., fractions of integers). Let $V$ denote the set of the form $x+y \sqrt{2}$ where $x,y \in \Q$. You may take for granted that the set $V$ is a vector space over the field $\Q$.

(a) Show that $B=\{1, \sqrt{2}\}$ is a basis for the vector space $V$ over $\Q$.

(b) Let $\alpha=a+b\sqrt{2} \in V$, and let $T_{\alpha}: V \to V$ be the map defined by
$T_{\alpha}(x+y\sqrt{2}):=(ax+2by)+(ay+bx)\sqrt{2}\in V$ for any $x+y\sqrt{2} \in V$.
Show that $T_{\alpha}$ is a linear transformation.

(c) Let $\begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \end{bmatrix}_B=x+y \sqrt{2}$.
Find the matrix $T_B$ such that
$T_{\alpha} (x+y \sqrt{2})=\left( T_B\begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \end{bmatrix}\right)_B,$ and compute $\det T_B$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 74

(a) Show that if a group $G$ has the following order, then it is not simple.

1. $28$
2. $496$
3. $8128$

(b) Show that if the order of a group $G$ is equal to an even perfect number then the group is not simple.

## Problem 73

Let $c_1, c_2,\dots, c_n$ be mutually distinct real numbers.

Show that exponential functions
$e^{c_1x}, e^{c_2x}, \dots, e^{c_nx}$ are linearly independent over $\R$.

## Problem 72

(a) Let $A=(a_{ij})$ be an $n\times n$ matrix. Suppose that the entries of the matrix $A$ satisfy the following relation.
$|a_{ii}|>|a_{i1}|+\cdots +|a_{i\,i-1}|+|a_{i \, i+1}|+\cdots +|a_{in}|$ for all $1 \leq i \leq n$.
Show that the matrix $A$ is nonsingular.

(b) Let $B=(b_{ij})$ be an $n \times n$ matrix whose entries satisfy the relation
$|b_{i\,i}|=1 \hspace{0.5cm} \text{ and }\hspace{0.5cm} |b_{ij}|<\frac{1}{n-1}$ for all $i$ and $j$ with $i \neq j$.
Prove that the matrix $B$ is nonsingular.

(c)
Determine whether the following matrix is nonsingular or not.
$C=\begin{bmatrix} \pi & e & e^2/2\pi^2 \\[5 pt] e^2/2\pi^2 &\pi &e \\[5pt] e & e^2/2\pi^2 & \pi \end{bmatrix},$ where $\pi=3.14159\dots$, and $e=2.71828\dots$ is Euler’s number (or Napier’s constant).

## Problem 71

Let $P_2(\R)$ be the vector space over $\R$ consisting of all polynomials with real coefficients of degree $2$ or less.
Let $B=\{1,x,x^2\}$ be a basis of the vector space $P_2(\R)$.
For each linear transformation $T:P_2(\R) \to P_2(\R)$ defined below, find the matrix representation of $T$ with respect to the basis $B$. For $f(x)\in P_2(\R)$, define $T$ as follows.

(a) $T(f(x))=\frac{\mathrm{d}^2}{\mathrm{d}x^2} f(x)-3\frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x}f(x)$

(b) $T(f(x))=\int_{-1}^1\! (t-x)^2f(t) \,\mathrm{d}t$

(c) $T(f(x))=e^x \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x}(e^{-x}f(x))$

## Problem 70

Suppose that $A$ is an $n \times n$ matrix with eigenvalue $\lambda$ and corresponding eigenvector $\mathbf{v}$.

(a) If $A$ is invertible, is $\mathbf{v}$ an eigenvector of $A^{-1}$? If so, what is the corresponding eigenvalue? If not, explain why not.

(b) Is $3\mathbf{v}$ an eigenvector of $A$? If so, what is the corresponding eigenvalue? If not, explain why not.

(Stanford University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 69

Let $F$ and $H$ be an $n\times n$ matrices satisfying the relation
$HF-FH=-2F.$

(a) Find the trace of the matrix $F$.

(b) Let $\lambda$ be an eigenvalue of $H$ and let $\mathbf{v}$ be an eigenvector corresponding to $\lambda$. Show that there exists an positive integer $N$ such that $F^N\mathbf{v}=\mathbf{0}$.

## Problem 68

Let $H$ and $E$ be $n \times n$ matrices satisfying the relation
$HE-EH=2E.$ Let $\lambda$ be an eigenvalue of the matrix $H$ such that the real part of $\lambda$ is the largest among the eigenvalues of $H$.
Let $\mathbf{x}$ be an eigenvector corresponding to $\lambda$. Then prove that
$E\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}.$

## Problem 67

Answer the following questions regarding eigenvalues of a real matrix.

(a) True or False. If each entry of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ is a real number, then the eigenvalues of $A$ are all real numbers.
(b) Find the eigenvalues of the matrix
$B=\begin{bmatrix} -2 & -1\\ 5& 2 \end{bmatrix}.$

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 66

Consider the matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 1 \\ 2 &5 &4 \\ 1 & 1 & 0 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Calculate the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$. If you think the matrix $A$ is not invertible, then explain why.

(b) Are the vectors
$\mathbf{A}_1=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{A}_2=\begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 5 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \text{ and } \mathbf{A}_3=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 4 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}$ linearly independent?

(c) Write the vector $\mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}$ as a linear combination of $\mathbf{A}_1$, $\mathbf{A}_2$, and $\mathbf{A}_3$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 65

Consider the system of linear equations
\begin{align*}
x_1&= 2, \\
-2x_1 + x_2 &= 3, \\
5x_1-4x_2 +x_3 &= 2
\end{align*}

(a) Find the coefficient matrix and its inverse matrix.

(b) Using the inverse matrix, solve the system of linear equations.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Sylow’s Theorem (Summary)

In this post we review Sylow’s theorem and as an example we solve the following problem.

## Problem 64

Show that a group of order $200$ has a normal Sylow $5$-subgroup.

## Problem 63

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ real symmetric matrix whose eigenvalues are all non-negative real numbers.

Show that there is an $n \times n$ real matrix $B$ such that $B^2=A$.

## Problem 62

Let $T: \R^n \to \R^m$ be a linear transformation.
Suppose that $S=\{\mathbf{x}_1, \mathbf{x}_2,\dots, \mathbf{x}_k\}$ is a subset of $\R^n$ such that $\{T(\mathbf{x}_1), T(\mathbf{x}_2), \dots, T(\mathbf{x}_k) \}$ is a linearly independent subset of $\R^m$.

Prove that the set $S$ is linearly independent.

## Problem 61

Let $V$ and $W$ be subspaces of $\R^n$ such that $V \cap W =\{\mathbf{0}\}$ and $\dim(V)+\dim(W)=n$.

(a) If $\mathbf{v}+\mathbf{w}=\mathbf{0}$, where $\mathbf{v}\in V$ and $\mathbf{w}\in W$, then show that $\mathbf{v}=\mathbf{0}$ and $\mathbf{w}=\mathbf{0}$.

(b) If $B_1$ is a basis for the subspace $V$ and $B_2$ is a basis for the subspace $W$, then show that the union $B_1\cup B_2$ is a basis for $R^n$.

(c) If $\mathbf{x}$ is in $\R^n$, then show that $\mathbf{x}$ can be written in the form $\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{v}+\mathbf{w}$, where $\mathbf{v}\in V$ and $\mathbf{w} \in W$.

(d) Show that the representation obtained in part (c) is unique.

## Problem 60

Let $T: \R^3 \to \R^3$ be the linear transformation given by orthogonal projection to the line spanned by $\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix}$.

(a) Find a formula for $T(\mathbf{x})$ for $\mathbf{x}\in \R^3$.

(b) Find a basis for the image subspace of $T$.

(c) Find a basis for the kernel subspace of $T$.

(d) Find the $3 \times 3$ matrix for $T$ with respect to the standard basis for $\R^3$.

(e) Find a basis for the orthogonal complement of the kernel of $T$. (The orthogonal complement is the subspace of all vectors perpendicular to a given subspace, in this case, the kernel.)

(f) Find a basis for the orthogonal complement of the image of $T$.

(g) What is the rank of $T$?

(Johns Hopkins University Exam)

## Problem 59

Answer the following two questions with justification.

(a) Does there exist a $2 \times 2$ matrix $A$ with $A^3=O$ but $A^2 \neq O$? Here $O$ denotes the $2 \times 2$ zero matrix.

(b) Does there exist a $3 \times 3$ real matrix $B$ such that $B^2=A$ where
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & -1 & 0 \\ -1 &2 &-1 \\ 0 & -1 & 1 \end{bmatrix}\,\,\,\,?$

(Princeton University Linear Algebra Exam)