## Problem 38

Let $A$ be an $m \times n$ real matrix.
Then the kernel of $A$ is defined as $\ker(A)=\{ x\in \R^n \mid Ax=0 \}$.

The kernel is also called the null space of $A$.
Suppose that $A$ is an $m \times n$ real matrix such that $\ker(A)=0$. Prove that $A^{\trans}A$ is invertible.

(Stanford University Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 37

Suppose that $A$ is a diagonalizable $n\times n$ matrix and has only $1$ and $-1$ as eigenvalues.
Show that $A^2=I_n$, where $I_n$ is the $n\times n$ identity matrix.

(Stanford University Linear Algebra Exam)

See below for a generalized problem.

## Problem 36

If $L:\R^2 \to \R^3$ is a linear transformation such that
\begin{align*}
L\left( \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}\right)
=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}, \,\,\,\,
L\left( \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}\right)
=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
3 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}
then

(a) find $L\left( \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix}\right)$, and

(b) find the formula for $L\left( \begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \end{bmatrix}\right)$.

If you think you can solve (b), then skip (a) and solve (b) first and use the result of (b) to answer (a).

(Part (a) is an exam problem of Purdue University)

## Problem 35

Let $A$ be an $n$ by $n$ matrix with entries in complex numbers $\C$. Its only eigenvalues are $1,2,3,4,5$, possibly with multiplicities. What is the rank of the matrix $A+I_n$, where $I_n$ is the identity $n$ by $n$ matrix.

(UCB-University of California, Berkeley, Exam)

## Problem 34

(a) Let

$A=\begin{bmatrix} a_{11} & a_{12}\\ a_{21}& a_{22} \end{bmatrix}$ be a matrix such that $a_{11}+a_{12}=1$ and $a_{21}+a_{22}=1$. Namely, the sum of the entries in each row is $1$.

(Such a matrix is called (right) stochastic matrix (also termed probability matrix, transition matrix, substitution matrix, or Markov matrix).)

Then prove that the matrix $A$ has an eigenvalue $1$.

(b) Find all the eigenvalues of the matrix
$B=\begin{bmatrix} 0.3 & 0.7\\ 0.6& 0.4 \end{bmatrix}.$

(c) For each eigenvalue of $B$, find the corresponding eigenvectors.

## Problem 33

Suppose that $S$ is a fixed invertible $3$ by $3$ matrix. This question is about all the matrices $A$ that are diagonalized by $S$, so that $S^{-1}AS$ is diagonal. Show that these matrices $A$ form a subspace of $3$ by $3$ matrix space.

(MIT-Massachusetts Institute of Technology Exam)

## Problem 32

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 2 & 0 & 10 \\ 0 &7+x &-3 \\ 0 & 4 & x \end{bmatrix}.$ Find all values of $x$ such that $A$ is invertible.

(Stanford University Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 31

Show that the center $Z(S_n)$ of the symmetric group with $n \geq 3$ is trivial.

## Problem 30

Let $G$ be a group of order $|G|=pq$, where $p$ and $q$ are (not necessarily distinct) prime numbers.

Then show that $G$ is either abelian group or the center $Z(G)=1$.

## Problem 29

A complex matrix is called unitary if $\overline{A}^{\trans} A=I$.

The inner product $(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y})$ of complex vector $\mathbf{x}$, $\mathbf{y}$ is defined by $(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}):=\overline{\mathbf{x}}^{\trans} \mathbf{y}$. The length of a complex vector $\mathbf{x}$ is defined to be $||\mathbf{x}||:=\sqrt{(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{x})}$.

Let $A$ be an $n \times n$ complex matrix. Prove that the followings are equivalent.

(a) The matrix $A$ is unitary.

(b) $||A \mathbf{x}||=|| \mathbf{x}||$ for any $n$-dimensional complex vector $\mathbf{x}$.

(c) $(A\mathbf{x}, A\mathbf{y})=(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y})$ for any $n$-dimensional complex vectors $x, y$

## Problem 28

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix and suppose that $A^r=I_n$ for some positive integer $r$. Then show that

(a) $|\tr(A)|\leq n$.

(b) If $|\tr(A)|=n$, then $A=\zeta I_n$ for an $r$-th root of unity $\zeta$.

(c) $\tr(A)=n$ if and only if $A=I_n$.

## Problem 27

Solve the following system of linear equations using Gauss-Jordan elimination.
\begin{align*}
6x+8y+6z+3w &=-3 \\
6x-8y+6z-3w &=3\\
8y \,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,- 6w &=6
\end{align*}

## Problem 26

In this problem, we will show that the concept of non-singularity of a matrix is equivalent to the concept of invertibility.
That is, we will prove that:

A matrix $A$ is nonsingular if and only if $A$ is invertible.

(a) Show that if $A$ is invertible, then $A$ is nonsingular.

(b) Let $A, B, C$ be $n\times n$ matrices such that $AB=C$.
Prove that if either $A$ or $B$ is singular, then so is $C$.

(c) Show that if $A$ is nonsingular, then $A$ is invertible.

## Problem 25

An $n \times n$ matrix $A$ is called nonsingular if the only solution of the equation $A \mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$ is the zero vector $\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$.
Otherwise $A$ is called singular.

(a) Show that if $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ nonsingular matrices, then the product $AB$ is also nonsingular.

(b) Show that if $A$ is nonsingular, then the column vectors of $A$ are linearly independent.

(c) Show that an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ is nonsingular if and only if the equation $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{b}$ has a unique solution for any vector $\mathbf{b}\in \R^n$.

Restriction
Do not use the fact that a matrix is nonsingular if and only if the matrix is invertible.

## Problem 24

Solve the following system of linear equations using Gaussian elimination.
\begin{align*}
x+2y+3z &=4 \\
5x+6y+7z &=8\\
9x+10y+11z &=12
\end{align*}

## Problem 23

Find all eigenvalues of the following $n \times n$ matrix.

$A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 &1 \\ 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 & 0\\ 0 & 1 & \cdots & 0 &0\\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 0 & 0&\cdots & 1& 0 \\ \end{bmatrix}$

## Problem 22

### Definition (automorphism).

An isomorphism from a group $G$ to itself is called an automorphism of $G$.
The set of all automorphism is denoted by $\Aut(G)$.

### Definition (characteristic subgroup).

A subgroup $H$ of a group $G$ is called characteristic in $G$ if for any $\phi \in \Aut(G)$, we have $\phi(H)=H$. In words, this means that each automorphism of $G$ maps $H$ to itself.

Prove the followings.

(a) If $H$ is characteristic in $G$, then $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.

(b) If $H$ is the unique subgroup of $G$ of a given order, then $H$ is characteristic in $G$.

(c) Suppose that a subgroup $K$ is characteristic in a group $H$ and $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$. Then $K$ is a normal subgroup in $G$.

## Problem 21

Let $A$ be an $n \times n$ matrix such that $\tr(A^n)=0$ for all $n \in \N$.
Then prove that $A$ is a nilpotent matrix. Namely there exist a positive integer $m$ such that $A^m$ is the zero matrix.

## Problem 20

Suppose the order of a group $G$ is $p^2$, where $p$ is a prime number.
Show that

(a) the group $G$ is an abelian group, and

(b) the group $G$ is isomorphic to either $\Zmod{p^2}$ or $\Zmod{p} \times \Zmod{p}$ without using the fundamental theorem of abelian groups.

## Problem 19

Let $A=(a_{i j})$ and $B=(b_{i j})$ be $n\times n$ real matrices for some $n \in \N$. Then answer the following questions about the trace of a matrix.

(a) Express $\tr(AB^{\trans})$ in terms of the entries of the matrices $A$ and $B$. Here $B^{\trans}$ is the transpose matrix of $B$.

(b) Show that $\tr(AA^{\trans})$ is the sum of the square of the entries of $A$.

(c) Show that if $A$ is nonzero symmetric matrix, then $\tr(A^2)>0$.