Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$.
Suppose that the localization $R_{\mathfrak{p}}$ is a Noetherian ring for every prime ideal $\mathfrak{p}$ of $R$.
Is it true that $A$ is also a Noetherian ring?

Let $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all real-valued continuous functions defined on the interval $[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.
Consider the subspace $W=\Span\{\sin^2(x), \cos^2(x)\}$ spanned by functions $\sin^2(x)$ and $\cos^2(x)$.

(a) Prove that the set $B=\{\sin^2(x), \cos^2(x)\}$ is a basis for $W$.

(b) Prove that the set $\{\sin^2(x)-\cos^2(x), 1\}$ is a basis for $W$.

Let $A$ be a $2\times 2$ real symmetric matrix.
Prove that all the eigenvalues of $A$ are real numbers by considering the characteristic polynomial of $A$.

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices and assume that they commute: $AB=BA$.
Then prove that the matrices $A$ and $B$ share at least one common eigenvector.

Let $\calP_3$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $3$ or less.
Let
\[S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},\]
where
\begin{align*}
p_1(x)&=1+3x+2x^2-x^3 & p_2(x)&=x+x^3\\
p_3(x)&=x+x^2-x^3 & p_4(x)&=3+8x+8x^3.
\end{align*}

(a) Find a basis $Q$ of the span $\Span(S)$ consisting of polynomials in $S$.

(b) For each polynomial in $S$ that is not in $Q$, find the coordinate vector with respect to the basis $Q$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

Let $V$ be a vector space and $B$ be a basis for $V$.
Let $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5$ be vectors in $V$.
Suppose that $A$ is the matrix whose columns are the coordinate vectors of $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5$ with respect to the basis $B$.

After applying the elementary row operations to $A$, we obtain the following matrix in reduced row echelon form
\[\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & 2 & 1 & 0 \\
0 & 1 & 3 & 0 & 1 \\
0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) What is the dimension of $V$?

(b) What is the dimension of $\Span\{\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5\}$?

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

Let $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all continuous functions defined on the interval $[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.
Consider the functions \[f(x)=\sin^2(x) \text{ and } g(x)=\cos^2(x)\]
in $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.

Prove or disprove that the functions $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ are linearly independent.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

Let $W$ be a subspace of $\R^4$ with a basis
\[\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}.\]

Find an orthonormal basis of $W$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices whose entries are real numbers.
Let
\[W=\left\{\, A\in V \quad \middle | \quad A=\begin{bmatrix}
a & b\\
c& -a
\end{bmatrix} \text{ for any } a, b, c\in \R \,\right\}.\]

(a) Show that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

(b) Find a basis of $W$.

(c) Find the dimension of $W$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)