## Problem 628

Let $G$ be a group of order $57$. Assume that $G$ is not a cyclic group.

Then determine the number of elements in $G$ of order $3$.

## Problem 627

Determine whether the function $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ defined by
$T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \end{bmatrix} \,\right) = \begin{bmatrix} x_+y \\ x+1 \\ 3y \end{bmatrix}$ is a linear transformation.

## Problem 626

Let $G$ be a group. Suppose that the number of elements in $G$ of order $5$ is $28$.

Determine the number of distinct subgroups of $G$ of order $5$.

## Problem 625

Let $G$ be a group and let $H_1, H_2$ be subgroups of $G$ such that $H_1 \not \subset H_2$ and $H_2 \not \subset H_1$.

(a) Prove that the union $H_1 \cup H_2$ is never a subgroup in $G$.

(b) Prove that a group cannot be written as the union of two proper subgroups.

## Problem 624

Let $R$ and $R’$ be commutative rings and let $f:R\to R’$ be a ring homomorphism.
Let $I$ and $I’$ be ideals of $R$ and $R’$, respectively.

(a) Prove that $f(\sqrt{I}\,) \subset \sqrt{f(I)}$.

(b) Prove that $\sqrt{f^{-1}(I’)}=f^{-1}(\sqrt{I’})$

(c) Suppose that $f$ is surjective and $\ker(f)\subset I$. Then prove that $f(\sqrt{I}\,) =\sqrt{f(I)}$

## Problem 623

Let $I=(x, 2)$ and $J=(x, 3)$ be ideal in the ring $\Z[x]$.

(a) Prove that $IJ=(x, 6)$.

(b) Prove that the element $x\in IJ$ cannot be written as $x=f(x)g(x)$, where $f(x)\in I$ and $g(x)\in J$.

## Problem 622

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix. Suppose that the sum of elements in each row of $A$ is zero.

Then prove that the matrix $A$ is singular.

## Problem 621

Let $G$ be a finite group and let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $G$.
Suppose that the order $n$ of $N$ is relatively prime to the index $|G:N|=m$.

(a) Prove that $N=\{a\in G \mid a^n=e\}$.

(b) Prove that $N=\{b^m \mid b\in G\}$.

## Problem 620

Is it true that a set of nilpotent elements in a ring $R$ is an ideal of $R$?

If so, prove it. Otherwise give a counterexample.

## Problem 619

Prove that every cyclic group is abelian.

## Problem 618

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$ such that every element $x$ in $R$ is idempotent, that is, $x^2=x$. (Such a ring is called a Boolean ring.)

(a) Prove that $x^n=x$ for any positive integer $n$.

(b) Prove that $R$ does not have a nonzero nilpotent element.

## Problem 617

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$.
Suppose that the localization $R_{\mathfrak{p}}$ is a Noetherian ring for every prime ideal $\mathfrak{p}$ of $R$.
Is it true that $A$ is also a Noetherian ring?

## Problem 616

Suppose that $p$ is a prime number greater than $3$.
Consider the multiplicative group $G=(\Zmod{p})^*$ of order $p-1$.

(a) Prove that the set of squares $S=\{x^2\mid x\in G\}$ is a subgroup of the multiplicative group $G$.

(b) Determine the index $[G : S]$.

(c) Assume that $-1\notin S$. Then prove that for each $a\in G$ we have either $a\in S$ or $-a\in S$.

## Problem 615

Let $R$ be a ring and assume that whenever $ab=ca$ for some elements $a, b, c\in R$, we have $b=c$.

Then prove that $R$ is a commutative ring.

## Problem 614

Let $G$ be a finite group. Let $S$ be the set of elements $g$ such that $g^5=e$, where $e$ is the identity element in the group $G$.

Prove that the number of elements in $S$ is odd.

## Problem 613

Let $m$ and $n$ be positive integers such that $m \mid n$.

(a) Prove that the map $\phi:\Zmod{n} \to \Zmod{m}$ sending $a+n\Z$ to $a+m\Z$ for any $a\in \Z$ is well-defined.

(b) Prove that $\phi$ is a group homomorphism.

(c) Prove that $\phi$ is surjective.

(d) Determine the group structure of the kernel of $\phi$.

## Problem 612

Let $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all real-valued continuous functions defined on the interval $[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.
Consider the subspace $W=\Span\{\sin^2(x), \cos^2(x)\}$ spanned by functions $\sin^2(x)$ and $\cos^2(x)$.

(a) Prove that the set $B=\{\sin^2(x), \cos^2(x)\}$ is a basis for $W$.

(b) Prove that the set $\{\sin^2(x)-\cos^2(x), 1\}$ is a basis for $W$.

## Problem 611

An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is called orthogonal if $A^{\trans}A=I$.
Let $V$ be the vector space of all real $2\times 2$ matrices.

Consider the subset
$W:=\{A\in V \mid \text{A is an orthogonal matrix}\}.$ Prove or disprove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

## Problem 610

Let $T:\R^2\to \R^2$ be a linear transformation such that it maps the vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2$ as indicated in the figure below.

Find the matrix representation $A$ of the linear transformation $T$.

## Problem 609

Let $A$ be a $2\times 2$ real symmetric matrix.
Prove that all the eigenvalues of $A$ are real numbers by considering the characteristic polynomial of $A$.