We use the fact that $f(x)$ is irreducible over $\Q$ if and only if $f(x+a)$ is irreducible for any $a\in \Q$.
We prove that the polynomial $f(x+1)$ is irreducible.

We have
\begin{align*}
f(x+1)&=(x+1)^4-2(x+1)-1\\
&=(x^4+4x^3+6x^2+4x+1)-2(x+1)-1\\
&=x^4+4x^3+6x^2+2x-2.
\end{align*}
Then the polynomial $f(x+1)$ is monic and all the non-leading coefficients are divisible by the prime number $2$.

Since the constant term is not divisible by $2^2$, Eisenstein’s criterion implies that the polynomial $f(x+1)$ is irreducible over $\Q$.
Therefore by the fact stated above, the polynomial $f(x)$ is also irreducible over $\Q$.

$\sqrt[m]{2}$ is an Irrational Number
Prove that $\sqrt[m]{2}$ is an irrational number for any integer $m \geq 2$.
Hint.
Use ring theory:
Consider the polynomial $f(x)=x^m-2$.
Apply Eisenstein's criterion, show that $f(x)$ is irreducible over $\Q$.
Proof.
Consider the monic polynomial […]

Irreducible Polynomial Over the Ring of Polynomials Over Integral Domain
Let $R$ be an integral domain and let $S=R[t]$ be the polynomial ring in $t$ over $R$. Let $n$ be a positive integer.
Prove that the polynomial
\[f(x)=x^n-t\]
in the ring $S[x]$ is irreducible in $S[x]$.
Proof.
Consider the principal ideal $(t)$ generated by $t$ […]

The Polynomial $x^p-2$ is Irreducible Over the Cyclotomic Field of $p$-th Root of Unity
Prove that the polynomial $x^p-2$ for a prime number $p$ is irreducible over the field $\Q(\zeta_p)$, where $\zeta_p$ is a primitive $p$th root of unity.
Hint.
Consider the field extension $\Q(\sqrt[p]{2}, \zeta)$, where $\zeta$ is a primitive $p$-th root of […]

$x^3-\sqrt{2}$ is Irreducible Over the Field $\Q(\sqrt{2})$
Show that the polynomial $x^3-\sqrt{2}$ is irreducible over the field $\Q(\sqrt{2})$.
Hint.
Consider the field extensions $\Q(\sqrt{2})$ and $\Q(\sqrt[6]{2})$.
Proof.
Let $\sqrt[6]{2}$ denote the positive real $6$-th root of of $2$.
Then since $x^6-2$ is […]

Galois Extension $\Q(\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}})$ of Degree 4 with Cyclic Group
Show that $\Q(\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}})$ is a cyclic quartic field, that is, it is a Galois extension of degree $4$ with cyclic Galois group.
Proof.
Put $\alpha=\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}}$. Then we have $\alpha^2=2+\sqrt{2}$. Taking square of $\alpha^2-2=\sqrt{2}$, we obtain […]

Application of Field Extension to Linear Combination
Consider the cubic polynomial $f(x)=x^3-x+1$ in $\Q[x]$.
Let $\alpha$ be any real root of $f(x)$.
Then prove that $\sqrt{2}$ can not be written as a linear combination of $1, \alpha, \alpha^2$ with coefficients in $\Q$.
Proof.
We first prove that the polynomial […]

Cubic Polynomial $x^3-2$ is Irreducible Over the Field $\Q(i)$
Prove that the cubic polynomial $x^3-2$ is irreducible over the field $\Q(i)$.
Proof.
Note that the polynomial $x^3-2$ is irreducible over $\Q$ by Eisenstein's criterion (with prime $p=2$).
This implies that if $\alpha$ is any root of $x^3-2$, then the […]

Irreducible Polynomial $x^3+9x+6$ and Inverse Element in Field Extension
Prove that the polynomial
\[f(x)=x^3+9x+6\]
is irreducible over the field of rational numbers $\Q$.
Let $\theta$ be a root of $f(x)$.
Then find the inverse of $1+\theta$ in the field $\Q(\theta)$.
Proof.
Note that $f(x)$ is a monic polynomial and the prime […]