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- Basic Exercise Problems in Module Theory
Let $R$ be a ring with $1$ and $M$ be a left $R$-module.
(a) Prove that $0_Rm=0_M$ for all $m \in M$.
Here $0_R$ is the zero element in the ring $R$ and $0_M$ is the zero element in the module $M$, that is, the identity element of the additive group $M$.
To simplify the […]
- Welcome to Problems in Mathematics
Welcome to my website.
I post problems and their solutions/proofs in mathematics.
Most of the problems are undergraduate level mathematics.
Here are several topics I cover on this website.
Topics
Linear Algebra
Group Theory
Ring Theory
Field Theory, Galois Theory
Module […]
- Every Finite Group Having More than Two Elements Has a Nontrivial Automorphism
Prove that every finite group having more than two elements has a nontrivial automorphism.
(Michigan State University, Abstract Algebra Qualifying Exam)
Proof.
Let $G$ be a finite group and $|G|> 2$.
Case When $G$ is a Non-Abelian Group
Let us first […]
- A Subgroup of Index a Prime $p$ of a Group of Order $p^n$ is Normal
Let $G$ be a finite group of order $p^n$, where $p$ is a prime number and $n$ is a positive integer.
Suppose that $H$ is a subgroup of $G$ with index $[G:P]=p$.
Then prove that $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.
(Michigan State University, Abstract Algebra Qualifying […]
- If Squares of Elements in a Group Lie in a Subgroup, then It is a Normal Subgroup
Let $H$ be a subgroup of a group $G$.
Suppose that for each element $x\in G$, we have $x^2\in H$.
Then prove that $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.
(Purdue University, Abstract Algebra Qualifying Exam)
Proof.
To show that $H$ is a normal subgroup of […]
- Ring Homomorphisms from the Ring of Rational Numbers are Determined by the Values at Integers
Let $R$ be a ring with unity.
Suppose that $f$ and $g$ are ring homomorphisms from $\Q$ to $R$ such that $f(n)=g(n)$ for any integer $n$.
Then prove that $f=g$.
Proof.
Let $a/b \in \Q$ be an arbitrary rational number with integers $a, b$.
Then we […]
- Determine Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Diagonalizable From a Partial Information of a Matrix
Suppose the following information is known about a $3\times 3$ matrix $A$.
\[A\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}=6\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix},
\quad
A\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1 \\
1
[…]
- Conditional Probability When the Sum of Two Geometric Random Variables Are Known
Let $X$ and $Y$ be geometric random variables with parameter $p$, with $0 \leq p \leq 1$. Assume that $X$ and $Y$ are independent.
Let $n$ be an integer greater than $1$. Let $k$ be a natural number with $k\leq n$. Then prove the formula
\[P(X=k \mid X + Y = n) = […]