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  • Is the Sum of a Nilpotent Matrix and an Invertible Matrix Invertible?Is the Sum of a Nilpotent Matrix and an Invertible Matrix Invertible? A square matrix $A$ is called nilpotent if some power of $A$ is the zero matrix. Namely, $A$ is nilpotent if there exists a positive integer $k$ such that $A^k=O$, where $O$ is the zero matrix. Suppose that $A$ is a nilpotent matrix and let $B$ be an invertible matrix of […]
  • Find the Limit of a MatrixFind the Limit of a Matrix Let \[A=\begin{bmatrix} \frac{1}{7} & \frac{3}{7} & \frac{3}{7} \\ \frac{3}{7} &\frac{1}{7} &\frac{3}{7} \\ \frac{3}{7} & \frac{3}{7} & \frac{1}{7} \end{bmatrix}\] be $3 \times 3$ matrix. Find \[\lim_{n \to \infty} A^n.\] (Nagoya University Linear […]
  • Linear Combination of Eigenvectors is Not an EigenvectorLinear Combination of Eigenvectors is Not an Eigenvector Suppose that $\lambda$ and $\mu$ are two distinct eigenvalues of a square matrix $A$ and let $\mathbf{x}$ and $\mathbf{y}$ be eigenvectors corresponding to $\lambda$ and $\mu$, respectively. If $a$ and $b$ are nonzero numbers, then prove that $a \mathbf{x}+b\mathbf{y}$ is not an […]
  • For Fixed Matrices $R, S$, the Matrices $RAS$ form a SubspaceFor Fixed Matrices $R, S$, the Matrices $RAS$ form a Subspace Let $V$ be the vector space of $k \times k$ matrices. Then for fixed matrices $R, S \in V$, define the subset $W = \{ R A S \mid A \in V \}$. Prove that $W$ is a vector subspace of $V$.   Proof. We verify the subspace criteria: the zero vector of $V$ is in $W$, and […]
  • Given Graphs of Characteristic Polynomial of Diagonalizable Matrices, Determine the Rank of MatricesGiven Graphs of Characteristic Polynomial of Diagonalizable Matrices, Determine the Rank of Matrices Let $A, B, C$ are $2\times 2$ diagonalizable matrices. The graphs of characteristic polynomials of $A, B, C$ are shown below. The red graph is for $A$, the blue one for $B$, and the green one for $C$. From this information, determine the rank of the matrices $A, B,$ and […]
  • Welcome to Problems in MathematicsWelcome to Problems in Mathematics Welcome to my website. I post problems and their solutions/proofs in mathematics. Most of the problems are undergraduate level mathematics. Here are several topics I cover on this website. Topics Linear Algebra Group Theory Ring Theory Field Theory, Galois Theory Module […]
  • The Preimage of Prime ideals are Prime IdealsThe Preimage of Prime ideals are Prime Ideals Let $f: R\to R'$ be a ring homomorphism. Let $P$ be a prime ideal of the ring $R'$. Prove that the preimage $f^{-1}(P)$ is a prime ideal of $R$.   Proof. The preimage of an ideal by a ring homomorphism is an ideal. (See the post "The inverse image of an ideal by […]
  • Matrix of Linear Transformation with respect to a Basis Consisting of EigenvectorsMatrix of Linear Transformation with respect to a Basis Consisting of Eigenvectors Let $T$ be the linear transformation from the vector space $\R^2$ to $\R^2$ itself given by \[T\left( \begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \end{bmatrix} \right)= \begin{bmatrix} 3x_1+x_2 \\ x_1+3x_2 \end{bmatrix}.\] (a) Verify that the […]

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