group theory in mathematics

• Basic Exercise Problems in Module Theory Let $R$ be a ring with $1$ and $M$ be a left $R$-module. (a) Prove that $0_Rm=0_M$ for all $m \in M$. Here $0_R$ is the zero element in the ring $R$ and $0_M$ is the zero element in the module $M$, that is, the identity element of the additive group $M$. To simplify the […]
• Number Theoretical Problem Proved by Group Theory. $a^{2^n}+b^{2^n}\equiv 0 \pmod{p}$ Implies $2^{n+1}|p-1$. Let $a, b$ be relatively prime integers and let $p$ be a prime number. Suppose that we have $a^{2^n}+b^{2^n}\equiv 0 \pmod{p}$ for some positive integer $n$. Then prove that $2^{n+1}$ divides $p-1$.   Proof. Since $a$ and $b$ are relatively prime, at least one […]
• Ring Homomorphisms from the Ring of Rational Numbers are Determined by the Values at Integers Let $R$ be a ring with unity. Suppose that $f$ and $g$ are ring homomorphisms from $\Q$ to $R$ such that $f(n)=g(n)$ for any integer $n$. Then prove that $f=g$.   Proof. Let $a/b \in \Q$ be an arbitrary rational number with integers $a, b$. Then we […]
• Sylow’s Theorem (Summary) In this post we review Sylow's theorem and as an example we solve the following problem. Show that a group of order $200$ has a normal Sylow $5$-subgroup. Review of Sylow's Theorem One of the important theorems in group theory is Sylow's theorem. Sylow's theorem is a […]
• The Center of a p-Group is Not Trivial Let $G$ be a group of order $|G|=p^n$ for some $n \in \N$. (Such a group is called a $p$-group.) Show that the center $Z(G)$ of the group $G$ is not trivial.   Hint. Use the class equation. Proof. If $G=Z(G)$, then the statement is true. So suppose that $G\neq […] • Independent Events of Playing Cards A card is chosen randomly from a deck of the standard 52 playing cards. Let$E$be the event that the selected card is a king and let$F$be the event that it is a heart. Prove or disprove that the events$E$and$F$are independent. Definition of Independence Events […] • Mathematics About the Number 2018 Happy New Year 2018!! Here are several mathematical facts about the number 2018. Is 2018 a Prime Number? The number 2018 is an even number, so in particular 2018 is not a prime number. The prime factorization of 2018 is $2018=2\cdot 1009.$ Here$2$and$1009\$ are […]