# kyoto-univerisity-exam-eye-catch

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- Find All the Eigenvalues of $A^k$ from Eigenvalues of $A$ Let $A$ be $n\times n$ matrix and let $\lambda_1, \lambda_2, \dots, \lambda_n$ be all the eigenvalues of $A$. (Some of them may be the same.) For each positive integer $k$, prove that $\lambda_1^k, \lambda_2^k, \dots, \lambda_n^k$ are all the eigenvalues of […]
- Two Quotients Groups are Abelian then Intersection Quotient is Abelian Let $K, N$ be normal subgroups of a group $G$. Suppose that the quotient groups $G/K$ and $G/N$ are both abelian groups. Then show that the group \[G/(K \cap N)\] is also an abelian group. Hint. We use the following fact to prove the problem. Lemma: For a […]
- Matrix $XY-YX$ Never Be the Identity Matrix Let $I$ be the $n\times n$ identity matrix, where $n$ is a positive integer. Prove that there are no $n\times n$ matrices $X$ and $Y$ such that \[XY-YX=I.\] Hint. Suppose that such matrices exist and consider the trace of the matrix $XY-YX$. Recall that the trace of […]
- If the Matrix Product $AB=0$, then is $BA=0$ as Well? Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices. Suppose that the matrix product $AB=O$, where $O$ is the $n\times n$ zero matrix. Is it true that the matrix product with opposite order $BA$ is also the zero matrix? If so, give a proof. If not, give a […]
- Example of an Infinite Group Whose Elements Have Finite Orders Is it possible that each element of an infinite group has a finite order? If so, give an example. Otherwise, prove the non-existence of such a group. Solution. We give an example of a group of infinite order each of whose elements has a finite order. Consider […]
- How to Find Eigenvalues of a Specific Matrix. Find all eigenvalues of the following $n \times n$ matrix. \[ A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 &1 \\ 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 & 0\\ 0 & 1 & \cdots & 0 &0\\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 0 & […]
- Example of a Nilpotent Matrix $A$ such that $A^2\neq O$ but $A^3=O$. Find a nonzero $3\times 3$ matrix $A$ such that $A^2\neq O$ and $A^3=O$, where $O$ is the $3\times 3$ zero matrix. (Such a matrix is an example of a nilpotent matrix. See the comment after the solution.) Solution. For example, let $A$ be the following $3\times […]
- Finite Order Matrix and its Trace Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix and suppose that $A^r=I_n$ for some positive integer $r$. Then show that (a) $|\tr(A)|\leq n$. (b) If $|\tr(A)|=n$, then $A=\zeta I_n$ for an $r$-th root of unity $\zeta$. (c) $\tr(A)=n$ if and only if $A=I_n$. Proof. (a) […]