Let $V$ be a subset of the vector space $\R^n$ consisting only of the zero vector of $\R^n$. Namely $V=\{\mathbf{0}\}$.
Then prove that $V$ is a subspace of $\R^n$.

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $3\times 3$ real matrices.
Let $A$ be the matrix given below and we define
\[W=\{M\in V \mid AM=MA\}.\]
That is, $W$ consists of matrices that commute with $A$.
Then $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

Determine which matrices are in the subspace $W$ and find the dimension of $W$.

(a) \[A=\begin{bmatrix}
a & 0 & 0 \\
0 &b &0 \\
0 & 0 & c
\end{bmatrix},\]
where $a, b, c$ are distinct real numbers.

(b) \[A=\begin{bmatrix}
a & 0 & 0 \\
0 &a &0 \\
0 & 0 & b
\end{bmatrix},\]
where $a, b$ are distinct real numbers.

Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
4 & 1\\
3& 2
\end{bmatrix}\]
and consider the following subset $V$ of the 2-dimensional vector space $\R^2$.
\[V=\{\mathbf{x}\in \R^2 \mid A\mathbf{x}=5\mathbf{x}\}.\]

(a) Prove that the subset $V$ is a subspace of $\R^2$.

(b) Find a basis for $V$ and determine the dimension of $V$.

Let $P_4$ be the vector space consisting of all polynomials of degree $4$ or less with real number coefficients.
Let $W$ be the subspace of $P_2$ by
\[W=\{ p(x)\in P_4 \mid p(1)+p(-1)=0 \text{ and } p(2)+p(-2)=0 \}.\]
Find a basis of the subspace $W$ and determine the dimension of $W$.

Let $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2 \}$ be a basis for the vector space $\R^2$, and let $T:\R^2 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation such that
\[T(\mathbf{v}_1)=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-2
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } T(\mathbf{v}_2)=\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.\]

If $\mathbf{e}_1=\mathbf{v}_1+2\mathbf{v}_2 \text{ and } \mathbf{e}_2=2\mathbf{v}_1-\mathbf{u}_2$, where $\mathbf{e}_1, \mathbf{e}_2$ are the standard unit vectors in $\R^2$, then find the matrix of $T$ with respect to the basis $\{\mathbf{e}_1, \mathbf{e}_2\}$.

Suppose the following information is known about a $3\times 3$ matrix $A$.
\[A\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}=6\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix},
\quad
A\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}=3\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \quad
A\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
-1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}=3\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) Find the corresponding eigenspaces.

(c) In each of the following questions, you must give a correct reason (based on the theory of eigenvalues and eigenvectors) to get full credit.
Is $A$ a diagonalizable matrix?
Is $A$ an invertible matrix?
Is $A$ an idempotent matrix?

Let $T: \R^2 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation.
Let
\[
\mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}\]
be 2-dimensional vectors.
Suppose that
\begin{align*}
T(\mathbf{u})&=T\left( \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \right)=\begin{bmatrix}
-3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix},\\
T(\mathbf{v})&=T\left(\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}\right)=\begin{bmatrix}
7 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}
Let $\mathbf{w}=\begin{bmatrix}
x \\
y
\end{bmatrix}\in \R^2$.
Find the formula for $T(\mathbf{w})$ in terms of $x$ and $y$.

Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree two or less.
Consider the subset in $P_2$
\[Q=\{ p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},\]
where
\begin{align*}
&p_1(x)=x^2+2x+1, &p_2(x)=2x^2+3x+1, \\
&p_3(x)=2x^2, &p_4(x)=2x^2+x+1.
\end{align*}

(a) Use the basis $B=\{1, x, x^2\}$ of $P_2$, give the coordinate vectors of the vectors in $Q$.

(b) Find a basis of the span $\Span(Q)$ consisting of vectors in $Q$.

(c) For each vector in $Q$ which is not a basis vector you obtained in (b), express the vector as a linear combination of basis vectors.

Let $T: \R^3 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation such that
\[T(\mathbf{e}_1)=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
4
\end{bmatrix}, T(\mathbf{e}_2)=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}, T(\mathbf{e}_3)=\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
6
\end{bmatrix},\]
where
\[\mathbf{e}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{e}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{e}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}\]
are the standard unit basis vectors of $\R^3$.
For any vector $\mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2 \\
x_3
\end{bmatrix}\in \R^3$, find a formula for $T(\mathbf{x})$.

Let $P_3$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all degree three or less polynomial with real number coefficient.
Let $W$ be the following subset of $P_3$.
\[W=\{p(x) \in P_3 \mid p'(-1)=0 \text{ and } p^{\prime\prime}(1)=0\}.\]
Here $p'(x)$ is the first derivative of $p(x)$ and $p^{\prime\prime}(x)$ is the second derivative of $p(x)$.

Show that $W$ is a subspace of $P_3$ and find a basis for $W$.