# Tagged: eigenspace

## Problem 630

Consider the matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix} a & -b\\ b& a \end{bmatrix}$, where $a$ and $b$ are real numbers and $b\neq 0$.

(a) Find all eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, determine the eigenspace $E_{\lambda}$.

(c) Diagonalize the matrix $A$ by finding a nonsingular matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.

## Problem 608

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices and assume that they commute: $AB=BA$.
Then prove that the matrices $A$ and $B$ share at least one common eigenvector.

## Problem 585

Consider the Hermitian matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & i\\ -i& 1 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, find the eigenvectors.

(c) Diagonalize the Hermitian matrix $A$ by a unitary matrix. Namely, find a diagonal matrix $D$ and a unitary matrix $U$ such that $U^{-1}AU=D$.

## Problem 527

A square matrix $A$ is called idempotent if $A^2=A$.

(a) Let $\mathbf{u}$ be a vector in $\R^n$ with length $1$.
Define the matrix $P$ to be $P=\mathbf{u}\mathbf{u}^{\trans}$.

Prove that $P$ is an idempotent matrix.

(b) Suppose that $\mathbf{u}$ and $\mathbf{v}$ be unit vectors in $\R^n$ such that $\mathbf{u}$ and $\mathbf{v}$ are orthogonal.
Let $Q=\mathbf{u}\mathbf{u}^{\trans}+\mathbf{v}\mathbf{v}^{\trans}$.

Prove that $Q$ is an idempotent matrix.

(c) Prove that each nonzero vector of the form $a\mathbf{u}+b\mathbf{v}$ for some $a, b\in \R$ is an eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue $1$ for the matrix $Q$ in part (b).

## Problem 476

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 1 \\ -1 &4 &1 \\ 2 & -4 & 0 \end{bmatrix}.$ The matrix $A$ has an eigenvalue $2$.
Find a basis of the eigenspace $E_2$ corresponding to the eigenvalue $2$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

## Problem 459

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1-a & a\\ -a& 1+a \end{bmatrix}$ be a $2\times 2$ matrix, where $a$ is a complex number.
Determine the values of $a$ such that the matrix $A$ is diagonalizable.

(Nagoya University, Linear Algebra Exam Problem)

## Problem 456

Determine whether the matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 & 0 \\ -1 &0 &0 \\ 0 & 0 & 2 \end{bmatrix}$ is diagonalizable.

If it is diagonalizable, then find the invertible matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.

## Problem 429

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ idempotent matrix, that is, $A^2=A$. Then prove that $A$ is diagonalizable.

## Problem 400

Find all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 10001 & 3 & 5 & 7 &9 & 11 \\ 1 & 10003 & 5 & 7 & 9 & 11 \\ 1 & 3 & 10005 & 7 & 9 & 11 \\ 1 & 3 & 5 & 10007 & 9 & 11 \\ 1 &3 & 5 & 7 & 10009 & 11 \\ 1 &3 & 5 & 7 & 9 & 10011 \end{bmatrix}.$

(MIT, Linear Algebra Homework Problem)

## Problem 386

Find all eigenvalues of the matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & i & i & i \\ i &0 & i & i \\ i & i & 0 & i \\ i & i & i & 0 \end{bmatrix},$ where $i=\sqrt{-1}$. For each eigenvalue of $A$, determine its algebraic multiplicity and geometric multiplicity.

## Problem 385

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 2 & -1 & -1 \\ -1 &2 &-1 \\ -1 & -1 & 2 \end{bmatrix}.$ Determine whether the matrix $A$ is diagonalizable. If it is diagonalizable, then diagonalize $A$.
That is, find a nonsingular matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.

## Problem 379

Find all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 3 & 9 & 9 & 9 \\ 9 &3 & 9 & 9 \\ 9 & 9 & 3 & 9 \\ 9 & 9 & 9 & 3 \end{bmatrix}.$

(Harvard University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

## Problem 378

Let $A$ be an $n \times n$ matrix and let $c$ be a complex number.

(a) For each eigenvalue $\lambda$ of $A$, prove that $\lambda+c$ is an eigenvalue of the matrix $A+cI$, where $I$ is the identity matrix. What can you say about the eigenvectors corresponding to $\lambda+c$?

(b) Prove that the algebraic multiplicity of the eigenvalue $\lambda$ of $A$ is the same as the algebraic multiplicity of the eigenvalue $\lambda+c$ of $A+cI$ are equal.

## Problem 377

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ idempotent complex matrix.
Then prove that $A$ is diagonalizable.

## Problem 376

(a) Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 &1 & 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \end{bmatrix}.$ Find the eigenvalues of the matrix $A$. Also give the algebraic multiplicity of each eigenvalue.

(b) Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 &1 & 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \end{bmatrix}.$ One of the eigenvalues of the matrix $A$ is $\lambda=0$. Find the geometric multiplicity of the eigenvalue $\lambda=0$.

## Problem 217

Let $A, B, C$ are $2\times 2$ diagonalizable matrices.

The graphs of characteristic polynomials of $A, B, C$ are shown below. The red graph is for $A$, the blue one for $B$, and the green one for $C$.

From this information, determine the rank of the matrices $A, B,$ and $C$.

Graphs of characteristic polynomials

## Problem 211

In this post, we explain how to diagonalize a matrix if it is diagonalizable.

As an example, we solve the following problem.

Diagonalize the matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 4 & -3 & -3 \\ 3 &-2 &-3 \\ -1 & 1 & 2 \end{bmatrix}$ by finding a nonsingular matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.

(Update 10/15/2017. A new example problem was added.)

## Problem 200

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 5 & 2 & -1 \\ 2 &2 &2 \\ -1 & 2 & 5 \end{bmatrix}.$

Pick your favorite number $a$. Find the dimension of the null space of the matrix $A-aI$, where $I$ is the $3\times 3$ identity matrix.

Your score of this problem is equal to that dimension times five.

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Practice Problem)

## Problem 189

Let $C$ be a $4 \times 4$ matrix with all eigenvalues $\lambda=2, -1$ and eigensapces
$E_2=\Span\left \{\quad \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} \quad\right \} \text{ and } E_{-1}=\Span\left \{ \quad\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix},\quad \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix} \quad\right\}.$

Calculate $C^4 \mathbf{u}$ for $\mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix} 6 \\ 8 \\ 6 \\ 9 \end{bmatrix}$ if possible. Explain why if it is not possible!

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)

## Problem 180

Suppose the following information is known about a $3\times 3$ matrix $A$.
$A\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}=6\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \quad A\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ -1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}=3\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ -1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \quad A\begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ -1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}=3\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ -1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) Find the corresponding eigenspaces.

(c) In each of the following questions, you must give a correct reason (based on the theory of eigenvalues and eigenvectors) to get full credit.
Is $A$ a diagonalizable matrix?
Is $A$ an invertible matrix?
Is $A$ an idempotent matrix?

(Johns Hopkins University Linear Algebra Exam)