Find the inverse matrix of
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 & 2 \\
0 &0 &1 \\
1 & 0 & 1
\end{bmatrix}\]
if it exists. If you think there is no inverse matrix of $A$, then give a reason.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm Exam Problem)

Solve the following system of linear equations and give the vector form for the general solution.
\begin{align*}
x_1 -x_3 -2x_5&=1 \\
x_2+3x_3-x_5 &=2 \\
2x_1 -2x_3 +x_4 -3x_5 &= 0
\end{align*}

(The Ohio State University, linear algebra midterm exam problem)

For a real number $a$, consider $2\times 2$ matrices $A, P, Q$ satisfying the following five conditions.

$A=aP+(a+1)Q$

$P^2=P$

$Q^2=Q$

$PQ=O$

$QP=O$,

where $O$ is the $2\times 2$ zero matrix.
Then do the following problems.

(a) Prove that $(P+Q)A=A$.
(b) Suppose $a$ is a positive real number and let
\[ A=\begin{bmatrix}
a & 0\\
1& a+1
\end{bmatrix}.\]
Then find all matrices $P, Q$ satisfying conditions (1)-(5).
(c) Let $n$ be an integer greater than $1$. For any integer $k$, $2\leq k \leq n$, we define the matrix
\[A_k=\begin{bmatrix}
k & 0\\
1& k+1
\end{bmatrix}.\]
Then calculate and simplify the matrix product
\[A_nA_{n-1}A_{n-2}\cdots A_2.\]

Suppose that a real symmetric matrix $A$ has two distinct eigenvalues $\alpha$ and $\beta$.
Show that any eigenvector corresponding to $\alpha$ is orthogonal to any eigenvector corresponding to $\beta$.

(Nagoya University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 3 & 3 \\
-3 &-5 &-3 \\
3 & 3 & 1
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } B=\begin{bmatrix}
2 & 4 & 3 \\
-4 &-6 &-3 \\
3 & 3 & 1
\end{bmatrix}.\]
For this problem, you may use the fact that both matrices have the same characteristic polynomial:
\[p_A(\lambda)=p_B(\lambda)=-(\lambda-1)(\lambda+2)^2.\]

(a) Find all eigenvectors of $A$.

(b) Find all eigenvectors of $B$.

(c) Which matrix $A$ or $B$ is diagonalizable?

(d) Diagonalize the matrix stated in (c), i.e., find an invertible matrix $P$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $A=PDP^{-1}$ or $B=PDP^{-1}$.

(Stanford University Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

Find the value(s) of $h$ for which the following set of vectors
\[\left \{ \mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
h \\
1 \\
-h
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2h \\
3h+1
\end{bmatrix}\right\}\]
is linearly independent.

(Boston College, Linear Algebra Midterm Exam Sample Problem)

Prove that the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1.00001 & 1 \\
1.00001 &1 &1.00001 \\
1 & 1.00001 & 1
\end{bmatrix}\]
has one positive eigenvalue and one negative eigenvalue.

(University of California, Berkeley Qualifying Exam Problem)

Let $T$ be a linear transformation from the vector space $\R^3$ to $\R^3$.
Suppose that $k=3$ is the smallest positive integer such that $T^k=\mathbf{0}$ (the zero linear transformation) and suppose that we have $\mathbf{x}\in \R^3$ such that $T^2\mathbf{x}\neq \mathbf{0}$.

Show that the vectors $\mathbf{x}, T\mathbf{x}, T^2\mathbf{x}$ form a basis for $\R^3$.

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)

Suppose that $\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}$ is an eigenvector of a matrix $A$ corresponding to the eigenvalue $3$ and that $\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}$ is an eigenvector of $A$ corresponding to the eigenvalue $-2$.
Compute $A^2\begin{bmatrix}
4 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}$.

Suppose the following information is known about a $3\times 3$ matrix $A$.
\[A\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}=6\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix},
\quad
A\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}=3\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \quad
A\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
-1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}=3\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
-1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) Find the corresponding eigenspaces.

(c) In each of the following questions, you must give a correct reason (based on the theory of eigenvalues and eigenvectors) to get full credit.
Is $A$ a diagonalizable matrix?
Is $A$ an invertible matrix?
Is $A$ an idempotent matrix?

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices. Let $W$ be a subset of $V$ consisting of all $2\times 2$ skew-symmetric matrices. (Recall that a matrix $A$ is skew-symmetric if $A^{\trans}=-A$.)

(a) Prove that the subset $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

(b) Find the dimension of $W$.

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)