# Tagged: unit vector

## Problem 561

Let $A$ be a singular $n\times n$ matrix.
Let
$\mathbf{e}_1=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ \vdots \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{e}_2=\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ \vdots \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \dots, \mathbf{e}_n=\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 0 \\ \vdots \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}$ be unit vectors in $\R^n$.

Prove that at least one of the following matrix equations
$A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{e}_i$ for $i=1,2,\dots, n$, must have no solution $\mathbf{x}\in \R^n$.

## Problem 527

A square matrix $A$ is called idempotent if $A^2=A$.

(a) Let $\mathbf{u}$ be a vector in $\R^n$ with length $1$.
Define the matrix $P$ to be $P=\mathbf{u}\mathbf{u}^{\trans}$.

Prove that $P$ is an idempotent matrix.

(b) Suppose that $\mathbf{u}$ and $\mathbf{v}$ be unit vectors in $\R^n$ such that $\mathbf{u}$ and $\mathbf{v}$ are orthogonal.
Let $Q=\mathbf{u}\mathbf{u}^{\trans}+\mathbf{v}\mathbf{v}^{\trans}$.

Prove that $Q$ is an idempotent matrix.

(c) Prove that each nonzero vector of the form $a\mathbf{u}+b\mathbf{v}$ for some $a, b\in \R$ is an eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue $1$ for the matrix $Q$ in part (b).

## Problem 255

Let $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2 \}$ be a basis for the vector space $\R^2$, and let $T:\R^2 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation such that
$T(\mathbf{v}_1)=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ -2 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } T(\mathbf{v}_2)=\begin{bmatrix} 3 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}.$

If $\mathbf{e}_1=\mathbf{v}_1+2\mathbf{v}_2 \text{ and } \mathbf{e}_2=2\mathbf{v}_1-\mathbf{u}_2$, where $\mathbf{e}_1, \mathbf{e}_2$ are the standard unit vectors in $\R^2$, then find the matrix of $T$ with respect to the basis $\{\mathbf{e}_1, \mathbf{e}_2\}$.