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  • Exponential Functions are Linearly IndependentExponential Functions are Linearly Independent Let $c_1, c_2,\dots, c_n$ be mutually distinct real numbers. Show that exponential functions \[e^{c_1x}, e^{c_2x}, \dots, e^{c_nx}\] are linearly independent over $\R$. Hint. Consider a linear combination \[a_1 e^{c_1 x}+a_2 e^{c_2x}+\cdots + a_ne^{c_nx}=0.\] […]
  • The Inverse Image of an Ideal by a Ring Homomorphism is an IdealThe Inverse Image of an Ideal by a Ring Homomorphism is an Ideal Let $f:R\to R'$ be a ring homomorphism. Let $I'$ be an ideal of $R'$ and let $I=f^{-1}(I)$ be the preimage of $I$ by $f$. Prove that $I$ is an ideal of the ring $R$.   Proof. To prove $I=f^{-1}(I')$ is an ideal of $R$, we need to check the following two […]
  • Example of an Infinite Group Whose Elements Have Finite OrdersExample of an Infinite Group Whose Elements Have Finite Orders Is it possible that each element of an infinite group has a finite order? If so, give an example. Otherwise, prove the non-existence of such a group.   Solution. We give an example of a group of infinite order each of whose elements has a finite order. Consider […]
  • Find the Nullity of the Matrix $A+I$ if Eigenvalues are $1, 2, 3, 4, 5$Find the Nullity of the Matrix $A+I$ if Eigenvalues are $1, 2, 3, 4, 5$ Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix. Its only eigenvalues are $1, 2, 3, 4, 5$, possibly with multiplicities. What is the nullity of the matrix $A+I_n$, where $I_n$ is the $n\times n$ identity matrix? (The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam […]
  • Determinant of a General Circulant MatrixDeterminant of a General Circulant Matrix Let \[A=\begin{bmatrix} a_0 & a_1 & \dots & a_{n-2} &a_{n-1} \\ a_{n-1} & a_0 & \dots & a_{n-3} & a_{n-2} \\ a_{n-2} & a_{n-1} & \dots & a_{n-4} & a_{n-3} \\ \vdots & \vdots & \dots & \vdots & \vdots \\ a_{2} & a_3 & \dots & a_{0} & a_{1}\\ a_{1} & a_2 & […]
  • A Condition that a Commutator Group is a Normal SubgroupA Condition that a Commutator Group is a Normal Subgroup Let $H$ be a normal subgroup of a group $G$. Then show that $N:=[H, G]$ is a subgroup of $H$ and $N \triangleleft G$. Here $[H, G]$ is a subgroup of $G$ generated by commutators $[h,k]:=hkh^{-1}k^{-1}$. In particular, the commutator subgroup $[G, G]$ is a normal subgroup of […]
  • Are Groups of Order 100, 200 Simple?Are Groups of Order 100, 200 Simple? Determine whether a group $G$ of the following order is simple or not. (a) $|G|=100$. (b) $|G|=200$.   Hint. Use Sylow's theorem and determine the number of $5$-Sylow subgroup of the group $G$. Check out the post Sylow’s Theorem (summary) for a review of Sylow's […]
  • Linear Algebra Midterm 1 at the Ohio State University (2/3)Linear Algebra Midterm 1 at the Ohio State University (2/3) The following problems are Midterm 1 problems of Linear Algebra (Math 2568) at the Ohio State University in Autumn 2017. There were 9 problems that covered Chapter 1 of our textbook (Johnson, Riess, Arnold). The time limit was 55 minutes. This post is Part 2 and contains […]

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