Determine a Matrix From Its Eigenvalue
Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
a & -1\\
1& 4
\end{bmatrix}\]
be a $2\times 2$ matrix, where $a$ is some real number.
Suppose that the matrix $A$ has an eigenvalue $3$.
(a) Determine the value of $a$.
(b) Does the matrix $A$ have eigenvalues other than […]

Finite Group and Subgroup Criteria
Let $G$ be a finite group and let $H$ be a subset of $G$ such that for any $a,b \in H$, $ab\in H$.
Then show that $H$ is a subgroup of $G$.
Proof.
Let $a \in H$. To show that $H$ is a subgroup of $G$, it suffices to show that the inverse $a^{-1}$ is in $H$.
If […]

Eckmann–Hilton Argument: Group Operation is a Group Homomorphism
Let $G$ be a group with the identity element $e$ and suppose that we have a group homomorphism $\phi$ from the direct product $G \times G$ to $G$ satisfying
\[\phi(e, g)=g \text{ and } \phi(g, e)=g, \tag{*}\]
for any $g\in G$.
Let $\mu: G\times G \to G$ be a map defined […]

A Recursive Relationship for a Power of a Matrix
Suppose that the $2 \times 2$ matrix $A$ has eigenvalues $4$ and $-2$. For each integer $n \geq 1$, there are real numbers $b_n , c_n$ which satisfy the relation
\[ A^{n} = b_n A + c_n I , \]
where $I$ is the identity matrix.
Find $b_n$ and $c_n$ for $2 \leq n \leq 5$, and […]

Probability Problems about Two Dice
Two fair and distinguishable six-sided dice are rolled.
(1) What is the probability that the sum of the upturned faces will equal $5$?
(2) What is the probability that the outcome of the second die is strictly greater than the first die?
Solution.
The sample space $S$ is […]

No Finite Abelian Group is Divisible
A nontrivial abelian group $A$ is called divisible if for each element $a\in A$ and each nonzero integer $k$, there is an element $x \in A$ such that $x^k=a$.
(Here the group operation of $A$ is written multiplicatively. In additive notation, the equation is written as $kx=a$.) That […]

Equivalent Conditions to be a Unitary Matrix
A complex matrix is called unitary if $\overline{A}^{\trans} A=I$.
The inner product $(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y})$ of complex vector $\mathbf{x}$, $\mathbf{y}$ is defined by $(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}):=\overline{\mathbf{x}}^{\trans} \mathbf{y}$. The length of a complex vector […]